膨慕励将膨垂畠慕祇縮峺掴樢穃蔦樢穃蔦-温凖偸磔猟垠
confucius(迅徨)-->膨慕励将,膨垂畠慕,噴眉将,屈噴励雰

指朕村

confucius



  1
  the master "is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance andapplication?
  "is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?
  "is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though menmay take no note of him?"
  the philosopher yu said, "they are few who, being filial and fraternal, arefond of offending against their superiors. there have been none, who, not likingto offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
  "the superior man bends his attention to what is radical. that beingestablished, all practical courses naturally grow up. filial piety and fraternalsubmission,-are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"
  the master said, "fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldomassociated with true virtue."
  the philosopher tsang said, "i daily examine myself on three points:-whether,in transacting business for others, i may have been not faithful;-whether, inintercourse with friends, i may have been not sincere;-whether i may have notmastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."
  the master said, "to rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must bereverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and lovefor men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."
  the master said, "a youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad,respectful to his elders. he should be earnest and truthful. he should overflowin love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. when he has time andopportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them inpolite studies."
  tsze-hsia said, "if a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, andapplies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents,he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote hislife; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:-althoughmen say that he has not learned, i will certainly say that he has.
  the master said, "if the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth anyveneration, and his learning will not be solid.
  "hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
  "have no friends not equal to yourself.
  "when you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."
  the philosopher tsang said, "let there be a careful attention to perform thefuneral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with theceremonies of sacrifice;-then the virtue of the people will resume its properexcellence."
  tsze-ch'in asked tsze-kung saying, "when our master comes to any country, hedoes not fail to learn all about its government. does he ask his information? oris it given to him?"
  tsze-kung said, "our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, andcomplaisant and thus he gets his information. the master's mode of askinginformation,-is it not different from that of other men?"
  the master said, "while a man's father is alive, look at the bent of hiswill; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. if for three years he doesnot alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."
  the philosopher yu said, "in practicing the rules of propriety, a naturalease is to be prized. in the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is theexcellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.
  "yet it is not to be observed in all cases. if one, knowing how such easeshould be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety,this likewise is not to be done."
  the philosopher yu said, "when agreements are made according to what isright, what is spoken can be made good. when respect is shown according to whatis proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. when the parties upon whom aman leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guidesand masters."
  the master said, "he who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his fooddoes not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seekthe appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in hisspeech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:-such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."
  tsze-kung said, "what do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet doesnot flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" the master replied, "they willdo; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him,who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."
  tsze-kung replied, "it is said in the book of poetry, 'as you cut and thenfile, as you carve and then polish.'-the meaning is the same, i apprehend, asthat which you have just expressed."
  the master said, "with one like ts'ze, i can begin to talk about the odes. itold him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."
  the master said, "i will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; i will beafflicted that i do not know men."


   2
  the master said, "he who exercises government by means of his virtue may becompared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turntowards it."
  the master said, "in the book of poetry are three hundred pieces, but thedesign of them all may be embraced in one sentence 'having no depravedthoughts.'"
  the master said, "if the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to begiven them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have nosense of shame.
  "if they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by therules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will becomegood."
  the master said, "at fifteen, i had my mind bent on learning.
  "at thirty, i stood firm.
  "at forty, i had no doubts.
  "at fifty, i knew the decrees of heaven.
  "at sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.
  "at seventy, i could follow what my heart desired, without transgressingwhat was right."
  mang i asked what filial piety was. the master said, "it is not beingdisobedient."
  soon after, as fan ch'ih was driving him, the master told him, saying,"mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and i answered him,-'not beingdisobedient.'"
  fan ch'ih said, "what did you mean?" the master replied, "that parents, whenalive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buriedaccording to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according topropriety."
  mang wu asked what filial piety was. the master said, "parents are anxiouslest their children should be sick."
  tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. the master said, "the filial pietynowadays means the support of one's parents. but dogs and horses likewise areable to do something in the way of support;-without reverence, what is there todistinguish the one support given from the other?"
  tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. the master said, "the difficulty iswith the countenance. if, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, theyoung take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they setthem before their elders, is this to be considered filial piety?"
  the master said, "i have talked with hui for a whole day, and he has notmade any objection to anything i said;-as if he were stupid. he has retired, andi have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustratemy teachings. hui!-he is not stupid."
  the master said, "see what a man does.
  "mark his motives.
  "examine in what things he rests.
  "how can a man conceal his character? how can a man conceal his character?"
  the master said, "if a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so ascontinually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."
  the master said, "the accomplished scholar is not a utensil."
  tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. the master said, "he actsbefore he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."
  the master said, "the superior man is catholic and not partisan. the meanman is partisan and not catholic."
  the master said, "learning without thought is labor lost; thought withoutlearning is perilous."
  the master said, "the study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"
  the master said, "yu, shall i teach you what knowledge is? when you know athing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow thatyou do not know it;-this is knowledge."
  tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.
  the master said, "hear much and put aside the points of which you stand indoubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:-then you willafford few occasions for blame. see much and put aside the things which seemperilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others intopractice: then you will have few occasions for repentance. when one gives fewoccasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in hisconduct, he is in the way to get emolument."
  the duke ai asked, saying, "what should be done in order to secure thesubmission of the people?" confucius replied, "advance the upright and set asidethe crooked, then the people will submit. advance the crooked and set aside theupright, then the people will not submit."
  chi k'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to befaithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. the master said,"let him preside over them with gravity;-then they will reverence him. let himbe final and kind to all;-then they will be faithful to him. let him advance thegood and teach the incompetent;-then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."
  some one addressed confucius, saying, "sir, why are you not engaged in thegovernment?"
  the master said, "what does the shu-ching say of filial piety?-'you arefinal, you discharge your brotherly duties. these qualities are displayed ingovernment.' this then also constitutes the exercise of government. why mustthere be that-making one be in the government?"
  the master said, "i do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on.how can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxento, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"
  tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.
  confucius said, "the yin dynasty followed the regulations of the hsia:wherein it took from or added to them may be known. the chau dynasty hasfollowed the regulations of yin: wherein it took from or added to them may beknown. some other may follow the chau, but though it should be at the distanceof a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."
  the master said, "for a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belongto him is flattery.
  "to see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."


   3
  confucius said of the head of the chi family, who had eight rows ofpantomimes in his area, "if he can bear to do this, what may he not bear to do?"
  the three families used the yungode, while the vessels were being removed,at the conclusion of the sacrifice. the master said, "'assisting are theprinces;-the son of heaven looks profound and grave';-what application can thesewords have in the hall of the three families?"
  the master said, "if a man be without the virtues proper to humanity, whathas he to do with the rites of propriety? if a man be without the virtues properto humanity, what has he to do with music?"
  lin fang asked what was the first thing to be attended to in ceremonies.
  the master said, "a great question indeed!
  "in festive ceremonies, it is better to be sparing than extravagant. in theceremonies of mourning, it is better that there be deep sorrow than in minuteattention to observances."
  the master said, "the rude tribes of the east and north have their princes,and are not like the states of our great land which are without them."
  the chief of the chi family was about to sacrifice to the t'ai mountain. themaster said to zan yu, "can you not save him from this?" he answered, "icannot." confucius said, "alas! will you say that the t'ai mountain is not sodiscerning as lin fang?"
  the master said, "the student of virtue has no contentions. if it be said hecannot avoid them, shall this be in archery? but he bows complaisantly to hiscompetitors; thus he ascends the hall, descends, and exacts the forfeit ofdrinking. in his contention, he is still the chun-tsze."
  tsze-hsia asked, saying, "what is the meaning of the passage-'the prettydimples of her artful smile! the well-defined black and white of her eye! theplain ground for the colors?'"
  the master said, "the business of laying on the colors follows thepreparation of the plain ground."
  "ceremonies then are a subsequent thing?" the master said, "it is shang whocan bring out my meaning. now i can begin to talk about the odes with him."
  the master said, "i could describe the ceremonies of the hsia dynasty, butchi cannot sufficiently attest my words. i could describe the ceremonies of theyin dynasty, but sung cannot sufficiently attest my words. they cannot do sobecause of the insufficiency of their records and wise men. if those weresufficient, i could adduce them in support of my words."
  the master said, "at the great sacrifice, after the pouring out of thelibation, i have no wish to look on."
  some one asked the meaning of the great sacrifice. the master said, "i donot know. he who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern the kingdom asto look on this"-pointing to his palm.
  he sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present. he sacrificed to thespirits, as if the spirits were present.
  the master said, "i consider my not being present at the sacrifice, as if idid not sacrifice."
  wang-sun chia asked, saying, "what is the meaning of the saying, 'it isbetter to pay court to the furnace then to the southwest corner?'"
  the master said, "not so. he who offends against heaven has none to whom hecan pray."
  the master said, "chau had the advantage of viewing the two past dynasties.how complete and elegant are its regulations! i follow chau."
  the master, when he entered the grand temple, asked about everything. someone said, "who say that the son of the man of tsau knows the rules of propriety!he has entered the grand temple and asks about everything." the master heard theremark, and said, "this is a rule of propriety."
  the master said, "in archery it is not going through the leather which isthe principal thing;-because people's strength is not equal. this was the oldway."
  tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering of a sheep connected with theinauguration of the first day of each month.
  the master said, "ts'ze, you love the sheep; i love the ceremony."
  the master said, "the full observance of the rules of propriety in servingone's prince is accounted by people to be flattery."
  the duke ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers, and howministers should serve their prince. confucius replied, "a prince should employhis minister according to according to the rules of propriety; ministers shouldserve their prince with faithfulness."
  the master said, "the kwan tsu is expressive of enjoyment without beinglicentious, and of grief without being hurtfully excessive."
  the duke ai asked tsai wo about the altars of the spirits of the land. tsaiwo replied, "the hsia sovereign planted the pine tree about them; the men of theyin planted the cypress; and the men of the chau planted the chestnut tree,meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe."
  when the master heard it, he said, "things that are done, it is needless tospeak about; things that have had their course, it is needless to remonstrateabout; things that are past, it is needless to blame."
  the master said, "small indeed was the capacity of kwan chung!"
  some one said, "was kwan chung parsimonious?" "kwan," was the reply, "hadthe san kwei, and his officers performed no double duties; how can he beconsidered parsimonious?"
  "then, did kwan chung know the rules of propriety?" the master said, "theprinces of states have a screen intercepting the view at their gates. kwan hadlikewise a screen at his gate. the princes of states on any friendly meetingbetween two of them, had a stand on which to place their inverted cups. kwan hadalso such a stand. if kwan knew the rules of propriety, who does not know them?"
  the master instructing the grand music master of lu said, "how to play musicmay be known. at the commencement of the piece, all the parts should soundtogether. as it proceeds, they should be in harmony while severally distinct andflowing without break, and thus on to the conclusion."
  the border warden at yi requested to be introduced to the master, saying,"when men of superior virtue have come to this, i have never been denied theprivilege of seeing them." the followers of the sage introduced him, and when hecame out from the interview, he said, "my friends, why are you distressed byyour master's loss of office? the kingdom has long been without the principlesof truth and right; heaven is going to use your master as a bell with its woodentongue."
  the master said of the shao that it was perfectly beautiful and alsoperfectly good. he said of the wu that it was perfectly beautiful but notperfectly good.
  the master said, "high station filled without indulgent generosity;ceremonies performed without reverence; mourning conducted without sorrow;-wherewith should i contemplate such ways?"


   4
  the master said, "it is virtuous manners which constitute the excellence ofa neighborhood. if a man in selecting a residence do not fix on one where suchprevail, how can he be wise?"
  the master said, "those who are without virtue cannot abide long either in acondition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of enjoyment. the virtuousrest in virtue; the wise desire virtue."
  the master said, "it is only the truly virtuous man, who can love, or whocan hate, others."
  the master said, "if the will be set on virtue, there will be no practice ofwickedness."
  the master said, "riches and honors are what men desire. if they cannot beobtained in the proper way, they should not be held. poverty and meanness arewhat men dislike. if they cannot be avoided in the proper way, they should notbe avoided.
  "if a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the requirements ofthat name?
  "the superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, actcontrary to virtue. in moments of haste, he cleaves to it. in seasons of danger,he cleaves to it."
  the master said, "i have not seen a person who loved virtue, or one whohated what was not virtuous. he who loved virtue, would esteem nothing above it.he who hated what is not virtuous, would practice virtue in such a way that hewould not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach his person.
  "is any one able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? i have notseen the case in which his strength would be insufficient.
  "should there possibly be any such case, i have not seen it."
  the master said, "the faults of men are characteristic of the class to whichthey belong. by observing a man's faults, it may be known that he is virtuous."
  the master said, "if a man in the morning hear the right way, he may die inthe evening hear regret."
  the master said, "a scholar, whose mind is set on truth, and who is ashamedof bad clothes and bad food, is not fit to be discoursed with."
  the master said, "the superior man, in the world, does not set his mindeither for anything, or against anything; what is right he will follow."
  the master said, "the superior man thinks of virtue; the small man thinks ofcomfort. the superior man thinks of the sanctions of law; the small man thinksof favors which he may receive."
  the master said: "he who acts with a constant view to his own advantage willbe much murmured against."
  the master said, "if a prince is able to govern his kingdom with thecomplaisance proper to the rules of propriety, what difficulty will he have? ifhe cannot govern it with that complaisance, what has he to do with the rules ofpropriety?"
  the master said, "a man should say, i am not concerned that i have no place,i am concerned how i may fit myself for one. i am not concerned that i am notknown, i seek to be worthy to be known."
  the master said, "shan, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading unity." thedisciple tsang replied, "yes."
  the master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying, "what do hiswords mean?" tsang said, "the doctrine of our master is to be true to theprinciples-of our nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others,-this andnothing more."
  the master said, "the mind of the superior man is conversant withrighteousness; the mind of the mean man is conversant with gain."
  the master said, "when we see men of worth, we should think of equaling them;when we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inwards and examineourselves."
  the master said, "in serving his parents, a son may remonstrate with them,but gently; when he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice, he showsan increased degree of reverence, but does not abandon his purpose; and shouldthey punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur."
  the master said, "while his parents are alive, the son may not go abroad toa distance. if he does go abroad, he must have a fixed place to which he goes."
  the master said, "if the son for three years does not alter from the way ofhis father, he may be called filial."
  the master said, "the years of parents may by no means not be kept in thememory, as an occasion at once for joy and for fear."
  the master said, "the reason why the ancients did not readily give utteranceto their words, was that they feared lest their actions should not come up tothem."
  the master said, "the cautious seldom err."
  the master said, "the superior man wishes to be slow in his speech andearnest in his conduct."
  the master said, "virtue is not left to stand alone. he who practices itwill have neighbors."
  tsze-yu said, "in serving a prince, frequent remonstrances lead to disgrace.between friends, frequent reproofs make the friendship distant."


   5
  the master said of kung-ye ch'ang that he might be wived; although he wasput in bonds, he had not been guilty of any crime. accordingly, he gave him hisown daughter to wife.
  of nan yung he said that if the country were well governed he would not beout of office, and if it were in governed, he would escape punishment anddisgrace. he gave him the daughter of his own elder brother to wife.
  the master said of tsze-chien, "of superior virtue indeed is such a man! ifthere were not virtuous men in lu, how could this man have acquired thischaracter?"
  tsze-kung asked, "what do you say of me, ts'ze!" the master said, "you are autensil." "what utensil?" "a gemmed sacrificial utensil."
  some one said, "yung is truly virtuous, but he is not ready with histongue."
  the master said, "what is the good of being ready with the tongue? they whoencounter men with smartness of speech for the most part procure themselveshatred. i know not whether he be truly virtuous, but why should he showreadiness of the tongue?"
  the master was wishing ch'i-tiao k'ai to enter an official employment. hereplied, "i am not yet able to rest in the assurance of this." the master waspleased.
  the master said, "my doctrines make no way. i will get upon a raft, andfloat about on the sea. he that will accompany me will be yu, i dare say." tsze-lu hearing this was glad, upon which the master said, "yu is fonder of daringthan i am. he does not exercise his judgment upon matters."
  mang wu asked about tsze-lu, whether he was perfectly virtuous. the mastersaid, "i do not know."
  he asked again, when the master replied, "in a kingdom of a thousandchariots, yu might be employed to manage the military levies, but i do not knowwhether he be perfectly virtuous."
  "and what do you say of ch'iu?" the master replied, "in a city of a thousandfamilies, or a clan of a hundred chariots, ch'iu might be employed as governor,but i do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous."
  "what do you say of ch'ih?" the master replied, "with his sash girt andstanding in a court, ch'ih might be employed to converse with the visitors andguests, but i do not know whether he is perfectly virtuous."
  the master said to tsze-kung, "which do you consider superior, yourself orhui?"
  tsze-kung replied, "how dare i compare myself with hui? hui hears one pointand knows all about a subject; i hear one point, and know a second."
  the master said, "you are not equal to him. i grant you, you are not equalto him."
  tsai yu being asleep during the daytime, the master said, "rotten woodcannot be carved; a wall of dirty earth will not receive the trowel. this yu,-what is the use of my reproving him?"
  the master said, "at first, my way with men was to hear their words, andgive them credit for their conduct. now my way is to hear their words, and lookat their conduct. it is from yu that i have learned to make this change."
  the master said, "i have not seen a firm and unbending man." some onereplied, "there is shan ch'ang." "ch'ang," said the master, "is under theinfluence of his passions; how can he be pronounced firm and unbending?"
  tsze-kung said, "what i do not wish men to do to me, i also wish not to doto men." the master said, "ts'ze, you have not attained to that."
  tsze-kung said, "the master's personal displays of his principles andordinary descriptions of them may be heard. his discourses about man's nature,and the way of heaven, cannot be heard."
  when tsze-lu heard anything, if he had not yet succeeded in carrying it intopractice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something else.
  tsze-kung asked, saying, "on what ground did kung-wan get that title ofwan?"
  the master said, "he was of an active nature and yet fond of learning, andhe was not ashamed to ask and learn of his inferiors!-on these grounds he hasbeen styled wan."
  the master said of tsze-ch'an that he had four of the characteristics of asuperior man-in his conduct of himself, he was humble; in serving his superior,he was respectful; in nourishing the people, he was kind; in ordering the people,he was just."
  the master said, "yen p'ing knew well how to maintain friendly intercourse.the acquaintance might be long, but he showed the same respect as at first."
  the master said, "tsang wan kept a large tortoise in a house, on thecapitals of the pillars of which he had hills made, and with representations ofduckweed on the small pillars above the beams supporting the rafters.-of whatsort was his wisdom?"
  tsze-chang asked, saying, "the minister tsze-wan thrice took office, andmanifested no joy in his countenance. thrice he retired from office, andmanifested no displeasure. he made it a point to inform the new minister of theway in which he had conducted the government; what do you say of him?" themaster replied. "he was loyal." "was he perfectly virtuous?" "i do not know. howcan he be pronounced perfectly virtuous?"
  tsze-chang proceeded, "when the officer ch'ui killed the prince of ch'i,ch'an wan, though he was the owner of forty horses, abandoned them and left thecountry. coming to another state, he said, 'they are here like our great officer,ch'ui,' and left it. he came to a second state, and with the same observationleft it also;-what do you say of him?" the master replied, "he was pure." "washe perfectly virtuous?" "i do not know. how can he be pronounced perfectlyvirtuous?"
  chi wan thought thrice, and then acted. when the master was informed of it,he said, "twice may do."
  the master said, "when good order prevailed in his country, ning wu actedthe part of a wise man. when his country was in disorder, he acted the part of astupid man. others may equal his wisdom, but they cannot equal his stupidity."
  when the master was in ch'an, he said, "let me return! let me return! thelittle children of my school are ambitious and too hasty. they are accomplishedand complete so far, but they do not know how to restrict and shape themselves."
  the master said, "po-i and shu-ch'i did not keep the former wickednesses ofmen in mind, and hence the resentments directed towards them were few."
  the master said, "who says of weishang kao that he is upright? one beggedsome vinegar of him, and he begged it of a neighbor and gave it to the man."
  the master said, "fine words, an insinuating appearance, and excessiverespect;-tso ch'iu-ming was ashamed of them. i also am ashamed of them. toconceal resentment against a person, and appear friendly with him;-tso ch'iu-ming was ashamed of such conduct. i also am ashamed of it."
  yen yuan and chi lu being by his side, the master said to them, "come, leteach of you tell his wishes."
  tsze-lu said, "i should like, having chariots and horses, and light furclothes, to share them with my friends, and though they should spoil them, iwould not be displeased."
  yen yuan said, "i should like not to boast of my excellence, nor to make adisplay of my meritorious deeds."
  tsze-lu then said, "i should like, sir, to hear your wishes." the mastersaid, "they are, in regard to the aged, to give them rest; in regard to friends,to show them sincerity; in regard to the young, to treat them tenderly."
  the master said, "it is all over. i have not yet seen one who could perceivehis faults, and inwardly accuse himself."
  the master said, "in a hamlet of ten families, there may be found onehonorable and sincere as i am, but not so fond of learning."


   6
  the master said, "there is yung!-he might occupy the place of a prince."
  chung-kung asked about tsze-sang po-tsze. the master said, "he may pass. hedoes not mind small matters."
  chung-kung said, "if a man cherish in himself a reverential feeling of thenecessity of attention to business, though he may be easy in small matters inhis government of the people, that may be allowed. but if he cherish in himselfthat easy feeling, and also carry it out in his practice, is not such aneasymode of procedure excessive?"
  the master said, "yung's words are right."
  the duke ai asked which of the disciples loved to learn.
  confucius replied to him, "there was yen hui; he loved to learn. he did nottransfer his anger; he did not repeat a fault. unfortunately, his appointed timewas short and he died; and now there is not such another. i have not yet heardof any one who loves to learn as he did."
  tsze-hwa being employed on a mission to ch'i, the disciple zan requestedgrain for his mother. the master said, "give her a fu." yen requested more."give her a yi," said the master. yen gave her five ping.
  the master said, "when ch'ih was proceeding to ch'i, he had fat horses tohis carriage, and wore light furs. i have heard that a superior man helps thedistressed, but does not add to the wealth of the rich."
  yuan sze being made governor of his town by the master, he gave him ninehundred measures of grain, but sze declined them.
  the master said, "do not decline them. may you not give them away in theneighborhoods, hamlets, towns, and villages?"
  the master, speaking of chung-kung, said, "if the calf of a brindled cow bered and homed, although men may not wish to use it, would the spirits of themountains and rivers put it aside?"
  the master said, "such was hui that for three months there would be nothingin his mind contrary to perfect virtue. the others may attain to this on somedays or in some months, but nothing more."
  chi k'ang asked about chung-yu, whether he was fit to be employed as anofficer of government. the master said, "yu is a man of decision; whatdifficulty would he find in being an officer of government?" k'ang asked, "ists'ze fit to be employed as an officer of government?" and was answered, "ts'zeis a man of intelligence; what difficulty would he find in being an officer ofgovernment?" and to the same question about ch'iu the master gave the same reply,saying, "ch'iu is a man of various ability."
  the chief of the chi family sent to ask min tsze-ch'ien to be governor of pi.min tszech'ien said, "decline the offer for me politely. if any one come againto me with a second invitation, i shall be obliged to go and live on the banksof the wan."
  po-niu being ill, the master went to ask for him. he took hold of his handthrough the window, and said, "it is killing him. it is the appointment ofheaven, alas! that such a man should have such a sickness! that such a manshould have such a sickness!"
  the master said, "admirable indeed was the virtue of hui! with a singlebamboo dish of rice, a single gourd dish of drink, and living in his mean narrowlane, while others could not have endured the distress, he did not allow his joyto be affected by it. admirable indeed was the virtue of hui!"
  yen ch'iu said, "it is not that i do not delight in your doctrines, but mystrength is insufficient." the master said, "those whose strength isinsufficient give over in the middle of the way but now you limit yourself."
  the master said to tsze-hsia, "do you be a scholar after the style of thesuperior man, and not after that of the mean man."
  tsze-yu being governor of wu-ch'ang, the master said to him, "have you gotgood men there?" he answered, "there is tan-t'ai miehming, who never in walkingtakes a short cut, and never comes to my office, excepting on public business."
  the master said, "mang chih-fan does not boast of his merit. being in therear on an occasion of flight, when they were about to enter the gate, hewhipped up his horse, saying, "it is not that i dare to be last. my horse wouldnot advance."
  the master said, "without the specious speech of the litanist t'o and thebeauty of the prince chao of sung, it is difficult to escape in the presentage."
  the master said, "who can go out but by the door? how is it that men willnot walk according to these ways?"
  the master said, "where the solid qualities are in excess of accomplishments,we have rusticity; where the accomplishments are in excess of the solidqualities, we have the manners of a clerk. when the accomplishments and solidqualities are equally blended, we then have the man of virtue."
  the master said, "man is born for uprightness. if a man lose his uprightness,and yet live, his escape from death is the effect of mere good fortune."
  the master said, "they who know the truth are not equal to those who love it,and they who love it are not equal to those who delight in it."
  the master said, "to those whose talents are above mediocrity, the highestsubjects may be announced. to those who are below mediocrity, the highestsubjects may not be announced."
  fan ch'ih asked what constituted wisdom. the master said, "to give one'sself earnestly to the duties due to men, and, while respecting spiritual beings,to keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom." he asked about perfect virtue.the master said, "the man of virtue makes the difficulty to be overcome hisfirst business, and success only a subsequent consideration;-this may be calledperfect virtue."
  the master said, "the wise find pleasure in water; the virtuous findpleasure in hills. the wise are active; the virtuous are tranquil. the wise arejoyful; the virtuous are long-lived."
  the master said, "ch'i, by one change, would come to the state of lu. lu, byone change, would come to a state where true principles predominated."
  the master said, "a cornered vessel without corners-a strange corneredvessel! a strange cornered vessel!"
  tsai wo asked, saying, "a benevolent man, though it be told him,-'there is aman in the well" will go in after him, i suppose." confucius said, "why shouldhe do so?" a superior man may be made to go to the well, but he cannot be madeto go down into it. he may be imposed upon, but he cannot be fooled."
  the master said, "the superior man, extensively studying all learning, andkeeping himself under the restraint of the rules of propriety, may thus likewisenot overstep what is right."
  the master having visited nan-tsze, tsze-lu was displeased, on which themaster swore, saying, "wherein i have done improperly, may heaven reject me, mayheaven reject me!"
  the master said, "perfect is the virtue which is according to the constantmean! rare for a long time has been its practice among the people."
  tsze-kung said, "suppose the case of a man extensively conferring benefitson the people, and able to assist all, what would you say of him? might he becalled perfectly virtuous?" the master said, "why speak only of virtue inconnection with him? must he not have the qualities of a sage? even yao and shunwere still solicitous about this.
  "now the man of perfect virtue, wishing to be established himself, seeksalso to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also toenlarge others.
  "to be able to judge of others by what is nigh in ourselves;-this may becalled the art of virtue."


   7
  the master said, "a transmitter and not a maker, believing in and lovingthe ancients, i venture to compare myself with our old p'ang."
  the master said, "the silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning withoutsatiety; and instructing others without being wearied:-which one of these thingsbelongs to me?"
  the master said, "the leaving virtue without proper cultivation; the notthoroughly discussing what is learned; not being able to move towardsrighteousness of which a knowledge is gained; and not being able to change whatis not good:-these are the things which occasion me solicitude."
  when the master was unoccupied with business, his manner was easy, and helooked pleased.
  the master said, "extreme is my decay. for a long time, i have not dreamed,as i was wont to do, that i saw the duke of chau."
  the master said, "let the will be set on the path of duty.
  "let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped.
  "let perfect virtue be accorded with.
  "let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the polite arts."
  the master said, "from the man bringing his bundle of dried flesh for myteaching upwards, i have never refused instruction to any one."
  the master said, "i do not open up the truth to one who is not eager to getknowledge, nor help out any one who is not anxious to explain himself. when ihave presented one corner of a subject to any one, and he cannot from it learnthe other three, i do not repeat my lesson."
  when the master was eating by the side of a mourner, he never ate to thefull.
  he did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping.
  the master said to yen yuan, "when called to office, to undertake its duties;when not so called, to he retired;-it is only i and you who have attained tothis."
  tsze-lu said, "if you had the conduct of the armies of a great state, whomwould you have to act with you?"
  the master said, "i would not have him to act with me, who will unarmedattack a tiger, or cross a river without a boat, dying without any regret. myassociate must be the man who proceeds to action full of solicitude, who is fondof adjusting his plans, and then carries them into execution."
  the master said, "if the search for riches is sure to be successful, thoughi should become a groom with whip in hand to get them, i will do so. as thesearch may not be successful, i will follow after that which i love."
  the things in reference to which the master exercised the greatest cautionwere-fasting, war, and sickness.
  when the master was in ch'i, he heard the shao, and for three months did notknow the taste of flesh. "i did not think'" he said, "that music could have beenmade so excellent as this."
  yen yu said, "is our master for the ruler of wei?" tsze-kung said, "oh! iwill ask him."
  he went in accordingly, and said, "what sort of men were po-i and shu-ch'i?""they were ancient worthies," said the master. "did they have any repiningsbecause of their course?" the master again replied, "they sought to actvirtuously, and they did so; what was there for them to repine about?" on this,tsze-kung went out and said, "our master is not for him."
  the master said, "with coarse rice to eat, with water to drink, and mybended arm for a pillow;-i have still joy in the midst of these things. richesand honors acquired by unrighteousness, are to me as a floating cloud."
  the master said, "if some years were added to my life, i would give fifty tothe study of the yi, and then i might come to be without great faults."
  the master's frequent themes of discourse were-the odes, the history, andthe maintenance of the rules of propriety. on all these he frequently discoursed.
  the duke of sheh asked tsze-lu about confucius, and tsze-lu did not answerhim.
  the master said, "why did you not say to him,-he is simply a man, who in hiseager pursuit of knowledge forgets his food, who in the joy of its attainmentforgets his sorrows, and who does not perceive that old age is coming on?"
  the master said, "i am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge;i am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there."
  the subjects on which the master did not talk, were-extraordinary things,feats of strength, disorder, and spiritual beings.
  the master said, "when i walk along with two others, they may serve me as myteachers. i will select their good qualities and follow them, their badqualities and avoid them."
  the master said, "heaven produced the virtue that is in me. hwan t'ui-whatcan he do to me?"
  the master said, "do you think, my disciples, that i have any concealments?i conceal nothing from you. there is nothing which i do that is not shown to you,my disciples; that is my way."
  there were four things which the master taught,-letters, ethics, devotion ofsoul, and truthfulness.
  the master said, "a sage it is not mine to see; could i see a man of realtalent and virtue, that would satisfy me."
  the master said, "a good man it is not mine to see; could i see a manpossessed of constancy, that would satisfy me.
  "having not and yet affecting to have, empty and yet affecting to be full,straitened and yet affecting to be at ease:-it is difficult with suchcharacteristics to have constancy."
  the master angled,-but did not use a net. he shot,-but not at birds perching.
  the master said, "there may be those who act without knowing why. i do notdo so. hearing much and selecting what is good and following it; seeing much andkeeping it in memory: this is the second style of knowledge."
  it was difficult to talk profitably and reputably with the people of hu-hsiang, and a lad of that place having had an interview with the master, thedisciples doubted.
  the master said, "i admit people's approach to me without committing myselfas to what they may do when they have retired. why must one be so severe? if aman purify himself to wait upon me, i receive him so purified, withoutguaranteeing his past conduct."
  the master said, "is virtue a thing remote? i wish to be virtuous, and lo!virtue is at hand."
  the minister of crime of ch'an asked whether the duke chao knew propriety,and confucius said, "he knew propriety."
  confucius having retired, the minister bowed to wu-ma ch'i to come forward,and said, "i have heard that the superior man is not a partisan. may thesuperior man be a partisan also? the prince married a daughter of the house ofwu, of the same surname with himself, and called her,-'the elder tsze of wu.' ifthe prince knew propriety, who does not know it?"
  wu-ma ch'i reported these remarks, and the master said, "i am fortunate! ifi have any errors, people are sure to know them."
  when the master was in company with a person who was singing, if he sangwell, he would make him repeat the song, while he accompanied it with his ownvoice.
  the master said, "in letters i am perhaps equal to other men, but thecharacter of the superior man, carrying out in his conduct what he professes, iswhat i have not yet attained to."
  the master said, "the sage and the man of perfect virtue;-how dare i rankmyself with them? it may simply be said of me, that i strive to become suchwithout satiety, and teach others without weariness." kung-hsi hwa said, "thisis just what we, the disciples, cannot imitate you in."
  the master being very sick, tsze-lu asked leave to pray for him. he said,"may such a thing be done?" tsze-lu replied, "it may. in the eulogies it is said,'prayer has been made for thee to the spirits of the upper and lower worlds.'"the master said, "my praying has been for a long time."
  the master said, "extravagance leads to insubordination, and parsimony tomeanness. it is better to be mean than to be insubordinate."
  the master said, "the superior man is satisfied and composed; the mean manis always full of distress."
  the master was mild, and yet dignified; majestic, and yet not fierce;respectful, and yet easy.


   8
  the master said, "t'ai-po may be said to have reached the highest point ofvirtuous action. thrice he declined the kingdom, and the people in ignorance ofhis motives could not express their approbation of his conduct."
  the master said, "respectfulness, without the rules of propriety, becomeslaborious bustle; carefulness, without the rules of propriety, becomes timidity;boldness, without the rules of propriety, becomes insubordination;straightforwardness, without the rules of propriety, becomes rudeness.
  "when those who are in high stations perform well all their duties to theirrelations, the people are aroused to virtue. when old friends are not neglectedby them, the people are preserved from meanness."
  the philosopher tsang being ill, he cared to him the disciples of his school,and said, "uncover my feet, uncover my hands. it is said in the book of poetry,'we should be apprehensive and cautious, as if on the brink of a deep gulf, asif treading on thin ice, i and so have i been. now and hereafter, i know myescape from all injury to my person. o ye, my little children."
  the philosopher tsang being ill, meng chang went to ask how he was.
  tsang said to him, "when a bird is about to die, its notes are mournful;when a man is about to die, his words are good.
  "there are three principles of conduct which the man of high rank shouldconsider specially important:-that in his deportment and manner he keep fromviolence and heedlessness; that in regulating his countenance he keep near tosincerity; and that in his words and tones he keep far from lowness andimpropriety. as to such matters as attending to the sacrificial vessels, thereare the proper officers for them."
  the philosopher tsang said, "gifted with ability, and yet putting questionsto those who were not so; possessed of much, and yet putting questions to thosepossessed of little; having, as though he had not; full, and yet countinghimself as empty; offended against, and yet entering into no altercation;formerly i had a friend who pursued this style of conduct."
  the philosopher tsang said, "suppose that there is an individual who can beentrusted with the charge of a young orphan prince, and can be commissioned withauthority over a state of a hundred li, and whom no emergency however great candrive from his principles:-is such a man a superior man? he is a superior manindeed."
  the philosopher tsang said, "the officer may not be without breadth of mindand vigorous endurance. his burden is heavy and his course is long.
  "perfect virtue is the burden which he considers it is his to sustain;-is itnot heavy? only with death does his course stop;-is it not long?
  the master said, "it is by the odes that the mind is aroused.
  "it is by the rules of propriety that the character is established.
  "it is from music that the finish is received."
  the master said, "the people may be made to follow a path of action, butthey may not be made to understand it."
  the master said, "the man who is fond of daring and is dissatisfied withpoverty, will proceed to insubordination. so will the man who is not virtuous,when you carry your dislike of him to an extreme."
  the master said, "though a man have abilities as admirable as those of theduke of chau, yet if he be proud and niggardly, those other things are reallynot worth being looked at."
  the master said, "it is not easy to find a man who has learned for threeyears without coming to be good."
  the master said, "with sincere faith he unites the love of learning; holdingfirm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of his course.
  "such an one will not enter a tottering state, nor dwell in a disorganizedone. when right principles of government prevail in the kingdom, he will showhimself; when they are prostrated, he will keep concealed.
  "when a country is well governed, poverty and a mean condition are things tobe ashamed of. when a country is ill governed, riches and honor are things to beashamed of."
  the master said, "he who is not in any particular office has nothing to dowith plans for the administration of its duties."
  the master said, "when the music master chih first entered on his office,the finish of the kwan tsu was magnificent;-how it filled the ears!"
  the master said, "ardent and yet not upright, stupid and yet not attentive;simple and yet not sincere:-such persons i do not understand."
  the master said, "learn as if you could not reach your object, and werealways fearing also lest you should lose it."
  the master said, "how majestic was the manner in which shun and yu heldpossession of the empire, as if it were nothing to them!
  the master said, "great indeed was yao as a sovereign! how majestic was he!it is only heaven that is grand, and only yao corresponded to it. how vast washis virtue! the people could find no name for it.
  "how majestic was he in the works which he accomplished! how glorious in theelegant regulations which he instituted!"
  shun had five ministers, and the empire was well governed.
  king wu said, "i have ten able ministers."
  confucius said, "is not the saying that talents are difficult to find, true?only when the dynasties of t'ang and yu met, were they more abundant than inthis of chau, yet there was a woman among them. the able ministers were no morethan nine men.
  "king wan possessed two of the three parts of the empire, and with those heserved the dynasty of yin. the virtue of the house of chau may be said to havereached the highest point indeed."
  the master said, "i can find no flaw in the character of yu. he used himselfcoarse food and drink, but displayed the utmost filial piety towards the spirits.his ordinary garments were poor, but he displayed the utmost elegance in hissacrificial cap and apron. he lived in a low, mean house, but expended all hisstrength on the ditches and water channels. i can find nothing like a flaw inyu."


   9
  the subjects of which the master seldom spoke were-profitableness, and alsothe appointments of heaven, and perfect virtue.
  a man of the village of ta-hsiang said, "great indeed is the philosopherk'ung! his learning is extensive, and yet he does not render his name famous byany particular thing."
  the master heard the observation, and said to his disciples, "what shall ipractice? shall i practice charioteering, or shall i practice archery? i willpractice charioteering."
  the master said, "the linen cap is that prescribed by the rules of ceremony,but now a silk one is worn. it is economical, and i follow the common practice.
  "the rules of ceremony prescribe the bowing below the hall, but now thepractice is to bow only after ascending it. that is arrogant. i continue to bowbelow the hall, though i oppose the common practice."
  there were four things from which the master was entirely free. he had noforegone conclusions, no arbitrary predeterminations, no obstinacy, and noegoism.
  the master was put in fear in k'wang.
  he said, "after the death of king wan, was not the cause of truth lodgedhere in me?
  "if heaven had wished to let this cause of truth perish, then i, a futuremortal! should not have got such a relation to that cause. while heaven does notlet the cause of truth perish, what can the people of k'wang do to me?"
  a high officer asked tsze-kung, saying, "may we not say that your master isa sage? how various is his ability!"
  tsze-kung said, "certainly heaven has endowed him unlimitedly. he is about asage. and, moreover, his ability is various."
  the master heard of the conversation and said, "does the high officer knowme? when i was young, my condition was low, and i acquired my ability in manythings, but they were mean matters. must the superior man have such variety ofability? he does not need variety of ability. lao said, "the master said,'having no official employment, i acquired many arts.'"
  the master said, "am i indeed possessed of knowledge? i am not knowing. butif a mean person, who appears quite empty-like, ask anything of me, i set itforth from one end to the other, and exhaust it."
  the master said, "the fang bird does not come; the river sends forth nomap:-it is all over with me!"
  when the master saw a person in a mourning dress, or any one with the capand upper and lower garments of full dress, or a blind person, on observing themapproaching, though they were younger than himself, he would rise up, and if hehad to pass by them, he would do so hastily.
  yen yuan, in admiration of the master's doctrines, sighed and said, "ilooked up to them, and they seemed to become more high; i tried to penetratethem, and they seemed to become more firm; i looked at them before me, andsuddenly they seemed to be behind.
  "the master, by orderly method, skillfully leads men on. he enlarged my mindwith learning, and taught me the restraints of propriety.
  "when i wish to give over the study of his doctrines, i cannot do so, andhaving exerted all my ability, there seems something to stand right up before me;but though i wish to follow and lay hold of it, i really find no way to do so."
  the master being very ill, tsze-lu wished the disciples to act as ministersto him.
  during a remission of his illness, he said, "long has the conduct of yu beendeceitful! by pretending to have ministers when i have them not, whom should iimpose upon? should i impose upon heaven?
  "moreover, than that i should die in the hands of ministers, is it notbetter that i should die in the hands of you, my disciples? and though i may notget a great burial, shall i die upon the road?"
  tsze-kung said, "there is a beautiful gem here. should i lay it up in a caseand keep it? or should i seek for a good price and sell it?" the master said,"sell it! sell it! but i would wait for one to offer the price."
  the master was wishing to go and live among the nine wild tribes of the east.
  some one said, "they are rude. how can you do such a thing?" the master said,"if a superior man dwelt among them, what rudeness would there be?"
  the master said, "i returned from wei to lu, and then the music was reformed,and the pieces in the royal songs and praise songs all found their properplaces."
  the master said, "abroad, to serve the high ministers and nobles; at home,to serve one's father and elder brothers; in all duties to the dead, not to darenot to exert one's self; and not to be overcome of wine:-which one of thesethings do i attain to?"
  the master standing by a stream, said, "it passes on just like this, notceasing day or night!"
  the master said, "i have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty."
  the master said, "the prosecution of learning may be compared to what mayhappen in raising a mound. if there want but one basket of earth to complete thework, and i stop, the stopping is my own work. it may be compared to throwingdown the earth on the level ground. though but one basketful is thrown at a time,the advancing with it my own going forward."
  the master said, "never flagging when i set forth anything to him;-ah! thatis hui." the master said of yen yuan, "alas! i saw his constant advance. i neversaw him stop in his progress."
  the master said, "there are cases in which the blade springs, but the plantdoes not go on to flower! there are cases where it flowers but fruit is notsubsequently produced!"
  the master said, "a youth is to be regarded with respect. how do we knowthat his future will not be equal to our present? if he reach the age of fortyor fifty, and has not made himself heard of, then indeed he will not be worthbeing regarded with respect."
  the master said, "can men refuse to assent to the words of strict admonition?but it is reforming the conduct because of them which is valuable. can menrefuse to be pleased with words of gentle advice? but it is unfolding their aimwhich is valuable. if a man be pleased with these words, but does not unfoldtheir aim, and assents to those, but does not reform his conduct, i can reallydo nothing with him."
  the master said, "hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. haveno friends not equal to yourself. when you have faults, do not fear to abandonthem."
  the master said, "the commander of the forces of a large state may becarried off, but the will of even a common man cannot be taken from him."
  the master said, "dressed himself in a tattered robe quilted with hemp, yetstanding by the side of men dressed in furs, and not ashamed;-ah! it is yu whois equal to this!
  "he dislikes none, he covets nothing;-what can he do but what is good!"
  tsze-lu kept continually repeating these words of the ode, when the mastersaid, "those things are by no means sufficient to constitute perfectexcellence."
  the master said, "when the year becomes cold, then we know how the pine andthe cypress are the last to lose their leaves."
  the master said, "the wise are free from perplexities; the virtuous fromanxiety; and the bold from fear."
  the master said, "there are some with whom we may study in common, but weshall find them unable to go along with us to principles. perhaps we may go onwith them to principles, but we shall find them unable to get established inthose along with us. or if we may get so established along with them, we shallfind them unable to weigh occurring events along with us."
  "how the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter and turn! do i not think of you?but your house is distant."
  the master said, "it is the want of thought about it. how is it distant?"


  10
  confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he were notable to speak.
  when he was in the prince's ancestral temple, or in the court, he spokeminutely on every point, but cautiously.
  when he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great officers of thelower grade, he spoke freely, but in a straightforward manner; in speaking withthose of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely.
  when the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness; itwas grave, but self-possessed.
  when the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor, hiscountenance appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty.
  he inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving hisleft or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the skirts of hisrobe before and behind evenly adjusted.
  he hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.
  when the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, "the visitor isnot turning round any more."
  when he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if it werenot sufficient to admit him.
  when he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gateway; when hepassed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold.
  when he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his countenance appearedto change, and his legs to bend under him, and his words came as if he hardlyhad breath to utter them.
  he ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his hands, andhis body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared not breathe.
  when he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one step, hebegan to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look. when he had got thebottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings,and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.
  when he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to bend his body,as if he were not able to bear its weight. he did not hold it higher than theposition of the hands in making a bow, nor lower than their position in givinganything to another. his countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive,and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the ground.
  in presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a placidappearance.
  at his private audience, he looked highly pleased.
  the superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce color, in theornaments of his dress.
  even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish color.
  in warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture,but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.
  over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn's fur one of white;and over fox's fur one of yellow.
  the fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short.
  he required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body.
  when staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger.
  when he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle.
  his undergarment, except when it was required to be of the curtain shape,was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below.
  he did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap on a visit of condolence.
  on the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and presentedhimself at court.
  when fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean andmade of linen cloth.
  when fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also to changethe place where he commonly sat in the apartment.
  he did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his mincemeat cut quite small.
  he did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour,nor fish or flesh which was gone. he did not eat what was discolored, or whatwas of a bad flavor, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.
  he did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served withoutits proper sauce.
  though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what hetook to exceed the due proportion for the rice. it was only in wine that he laiddown no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.
  he did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.
  he was never without ginger when he ate. he did not eat much.
  when he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did not keep theflesh which he received overnight. the flesh of his family sacrifice he did notkeep over three days. if kept over three days, people could not eat it.
  when eating, he did not converse. when in bed, he did not speak.
  although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer alittle of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.
  if his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.
  when the villagers were drinking together, upon those who carried staffsgoing out, he also went out immediately after.
  when the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive awaypestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the easternsteps.
  when he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another state, hebowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.
  chi k'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received it,saying, "i do not know it. i dare not taste it."
  the stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he said,"has any man been hurt?" he did not ask about the horses.
  when the he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it away toothers. when the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have itcooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. when the prince sent him agift of a living animal, he would keep it alive.
  when he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment,the prince only sacrificed. he first tasted everything.
  when he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to theeast, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle across them.
  when the prince's order called him, without waiting for his carriage to beyoked, he went at once.
  when he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about everything.
  when any of his friends died, if he had no relations offices, he would say,"i will bury him."
  when a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and horses,he did not bow.
  the only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.
  in bed, he did not lie like a corpse. at home, he did not put on any formaldeportment.
  when he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance,he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress,or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute him in aceremonious manner.
  to any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage;he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population.
  when he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisionsset before him, he would change countenance and rise up.
  on a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.
  when he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight, holdingthe cord.
  when he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round, he didnot talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.
  seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. it flies round, and by and bysettles.
  the master said, "there is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. at itsseason! at its season!" tsze-lu made a motion to it. thrice it smelt him andthen rose.


  11
  the master said, "the men of former times in the matters of ceremonies andmusic were rustics, it is said, while the men of these latter times, inceremonies and music, are accomplished gentlemen.
  "if i have occasion to use those things, i follow the men of former times."
  the master said, "of those who were with me in ch'an and ts'ai, there arenone to be found to enter my door."
  distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there were yenyuan, min tsze-ch'ien, zan po-niu, and chung-kung; for their ability in speech,tsai wo and tsze-kung; for their administrative talents, zan yu and chi lu; fortheir literary acquirements, tsze-yu and tsze-hsia.
  the master said, "hui gives me no assistance. there is nothing that i say inwhich he does not delight."
  the master said, "filial indeed is min tsze-ch'ien! other people say nothingof him different from the report of his parents and brothers."
  nan yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter stone.confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife.
  chi k'ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. confucius replied tohim, "there was yen hui; he loved to learn. unfortunately his appointed time wasshort, and he died. now there is no one who loves to learn, as he did."
  when yen yuan died, yen lu begged the carriage of the master to sell and getan outer shell for his son's coffin.
  the master said, "every one calls his son his son, whether he has talents orhas not talents. there was li; when he died, he had a coffin but no outer shell.i would not walk on foot to get a shell for him, because, having followed in therear of the great officers, it was not proper that i should walk on foot."
  when yen yuan died, the master said, "alas! heaven is destroying me! heavenis destroying me!"
  when yen yuan died, the master bewailed him exceedingly, and the discipleswho were with him said, "master, your grief is excessive!"
  "is it excessive?" said he. "if i am not to mourn bitterly for this man, forwhom should i mourn?"
  when yen yuan died, the disciples wished to give him a great funeral, andthe master said, "you may not do so."
  the disciples did bury him in great style.
  the master said, "hui behaved towards me as his father. i have not been ableto treat him as my son. the fault is not mine; it belongs to you, o disciples."
  chi lu asked about serving the spirits of the dead. the master said, "whileyou are not able to serve men, how can you serve their spirits?" chi lu added,"i venture to ask about death?" he was answered, "while you do not know life,how can you know about death?"
  the disciple min was standing by his side, looking bland and precise; tsze-lu, looking bold and soldierly; zan yu and tsze-kung, with a free andstraightforward manner. the master was pleased.
  he said, "yu, there!-he will not die a natural death."
  some parties in lu were going to take down and rebuild the long treasury.
  min tsze-ch'ien said, "suppose it were to be repaired after its old style;-why must it be altered and made anew?"
  the master said, "this man seldom speaks; when he does, he is sure to hitthe point."
  the master said, "what has the lute of yu to do in my door?"
  the other disciples began not to respect tszelu. the master said, "yu hasascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the inner apartments."
  tsze-kung asked which of the two, shih or shang, was the superior. themaster said, "shih goes beyond the due mean, and shang does not come up to it."
  "then," said tsze-kung, "the superiority is with shih, i suppose."
  the master said, "to go beyond is as wrong as to fall short."
  the head of the chi family was richer than the duke of chau had been, andyet ch'iu collected his imposts for him, and increased his wealth.
  the master said, "he is no disciple of mine. my little children, beat thedrum and assail him."
  ch'ai is simple. shan is dull. shih is specious. yu is coarse.
  the master said, "there is hui! he has nearly attained to perfect virtue. heis often in want.
  "ts'ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of heaven, and his goods areincreased by him. yet his judgments are often correct."
  tsze-chang asked what were the characteristics of the good man. the mastersaid, "he does not tread in the footsteps of others, but moreover, he does notenter the chamber of the sage."
  the master said, "if, because a man's discourse appears solid and sincere,we allow him to be a good man, is he really a superior man? or is his gravityonly in appearance?"
  tsze-lu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what heheard. the master said, "there are your father and elder brothers to beconsulted;-why should you act on that principle of immediately carrying intopractice what you hear?" zan yu asked the same, whether he should immediatelycarry into practice what he heard, and the master answered, "immediately carryinto practice what you hear." kung-hsi hwa said, "yu asked whether he shouldcarry immediately into practice what he heard, and you said, 'there are yourfather and elder brothers to be consulted.' ch'iu asked whether he shouldimmediately carry into practice what he heard, and you said, 'carry itimmediately into practice.' i, ch'ih, am perplexed, and venture to ask you foran explanation." the master said, "ch'iu is retiring and slow; therefore i urgedhim forward. yu has more than his own share of energy; therefore i kept himback."
  the master was put in fear in k'wang and yen yuan fell behind. the master,on his rejoining him, said, "i thought you had died." hui replied, "while youwere alive, how should i presume to die?"
  chi tsze-zan asked whether chung yu and zan ch'iu could be called greatministers.
  the master said, "i thought you would ask about some extraordinaryindividuals, and you only ask about yu and ch'iu!
  "what is called a great minister, is one who serves his prince according towhat is right, and when he finds he cannot do so, retires.
  "now, as to yu and ch'iu, they may be called ordinary ministers."
  tsze-zan said, "then they will always follow their chief;-win they?"
  the master said, "in an act of parricide or regicide, they would not followhim."
  tsze-lu got tsze-kao appointed governor of pi.
  the master said, "you are injuring a man's son."
  tsze-lu said, "there are, there, common people and officers; there are thealtars of the spirits of the land and grain. why must one read books before hecan be considered to have learned?"
  the master said, "it is on this account that i hate your glib-tonguedpeople."
  tsze-lu, tsang hsi, zan yu, and kunghsi hwa were sitting by the master.
  he said to them, "though i am a day or so older than you, do not think ofthat.
  "from day to day you are saying, 'we are not known.' if some ruler were toknow you, what would you like to do?"
  tsze-lu hastily and lightly replied, "suppose the case of a state of tenthousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large cities; let it besuffering from invading armies; and to this let there be added a famine in cornand in all vegetables:-if i were intrusted with the government of it, in threeyears' time i could make the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules ofrighteous conduct." the master smiled at him.
  turning to yen yu, he said, "ch'iu, what are your wishes?" ch'iu replied,"suppose a state of sixty or seventy li square, or one of fifty or sixty, andlet me have the government of it;-in three years' time, i could make plenty toabound among the people. as to teaching them the principles of propriety, andmusic, i must wait for the rise of a superior man to do that."
  "what are your wishes, ch'ih," said the master next to kung-hsi hwa. ch'ihreplied, "i do not say that my ability extends to these things, but i shouldwish to learn them. at the services of the ancestral temple, and at theaudiences of the princes with the sovereign, i should like, dressed in the darksquare-made robe and the black linen cap, to act as a small assistant."
  last of all, the master asked tsang hsi, "tien, what are your wishes?" tien,pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet twanging, laid theinstrument aside, and "my wishes," he said, "are different from the cherishedpurposes of these three gentlemen." "what harm is there in that?" said themaster; "do you also, as well as they, speak out your wishes." tien then said,"in this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the season all complete,along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys,i would wash in the i, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return homesinging." the master heaved a sigh and said, "i give my approval to tien."
  the three others having gone out, tsang hsi remained behind, and said, "whatdo you think of the words of these three friends?" the master replied, "theysimply told each one his wishes."
  hsi pursued, "master, why did you smile at yu?"
  he was answered, "the management of a state demands the rules of propriety.his words were not humble; therefore i smiled at him."
  hsi again said, "but was it not a state which ch'iu proposed for himself?"the reply was, "yes; did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy li or oneof fifty or sixty, which was not a state?"
  once more, hsi inquired, "and was it not a state which ch'ih proposed forhimself?" the master again replied, "yes; who but princes have to do withancestral temples, and with audiences but the sovereign? if ch'ih were to be asmall assistant in these services, who could be a great one?


  12
  yen yuan asked about perfect virtue. the master said, "to subdue one's selfand return to propriety, is perfect virtue. if a man can for one day subduehimself and return to propriety, an under heaven will ascribe perfect virtue tohim. is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself, or is it fromothers?"
  yen yuan said, "i beg to ask the steps of that process." the master replied,"look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary topropriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which iscontrary to propriety." yen yuan then said, "though i am deficient inintelligence and vigor, i will make it my business to practice this lesson."
  chung-kung asked about perfect virtue. the master said, "it is, when you goabroad, to behave to every one as if you were receiving a great guest; to employthe people as if you were assisting at a great sacrifice; not to do to others asyou would not wish done to yourself; to have no murmuring against you in thecountry, and none in the family." chung-kung said, "though i am deficient inintelligence and vigor, i will make it my business to practice this lesson."
  sze-ma niu asked about perfect virtue.
  the master said, "the man of perfect virtue is cautious and slow in hisspeech."
  "cautious and slow in his speech!" said niu;-"is this what is meant byperfect virtue?" the master said, "when a man feels the difficulty of doing, canhe be other than cautious and slow in speaking?"
  sze-ma niu asked about the superior man. the master said, "the superior manhas neither anxiety nor fear."
  "being without anxiety or fear!" said nui;"does this constitute what we callthe superior man?"
  the master said, "when internal examination discovers nothing wrong, what isthere to be anxious about, what is there to fear?"
  sze-ma niu, full of anxiety, said, "other men all have their brothers, ionly have not."
  tsze-hsia said to him, "there is the following saying which i have heard-'death and life have their determined appointment; riches and honors depend uponheaven.'
  "let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, andlet him be respectful to others and observant of propriety:-then all within thefour seas will be his brothers. what has the superior man to do with beingdistressed because he has no brothers?"
  tsze-chang asked what constituted intelligence. the master said, "he withwhom neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements thatstartle like a wound in the flesh, are successful may be called intelligentindeed. yea, he with whom neither soaking slander, nor startling statements, aresuccessful, may be called farseeing."
  tsze-kung asked about government. the master said, "the requisites ofgovernment are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of militaryequipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler."
  tsze-kung said, "if it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensedwith, which of the three should be foregone first?" "the military equipment,"said the master.
  tsze-kung again asked, "if it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining twomust be dispensed with, which of them should be foregone?" the master answered,"part with the food. from of old, death has been the lot of an men; but if thepeople have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state."
  chi tsze-ch'ang said, "in a superior man it is only the substantialqualities which are wanted;-why should we seek for ornamental accomplishments?"
  tsze-kung said, "alas! your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, butfour horses cannot overtake the tongue. ornament is as substance; substance isas ornament. the hide of a tiger or a leopard stripped of its hair, is like thehide of a dog or a goat stripped of its hair."
  the duke ai inquired of yu zo, saying, "the year is one of scarcity, and thereturns for expenditure are not sufficient;-what is to be done?"
  yu zo replied to him, "why not simply tithe the people?"
  "with two tenths, said the duke, "i find it not enough;-how could i do withthat system of one tenth?"
  yu zo answered, "if the people have plenty, their prince will not be left towant alone. if the people are in want, their prince cannot enjoy plenty alone."
  tsze-chang having asked how virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to bediscovered, the master said, "hold faithfulness and sincerity as firstprinciples, and be moving continually to what is right,-this is the way to exaltone's virtue.
  "you love a man and wish him to live; you hate him and wish him to die.having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. this is a case of delusion.'it may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come to make adifference.'"
  the duke ching, of ch'i, asked confucius about government. confucius replied,"there is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister;when the father is father, and the son is son."
  "good!" said the duke; "if, indeed, the prince be not prince, the notminister, the father not father, and the son not son, although i have my revenue,can i enjoy it?"
  the master said, "ah! it is yu, who could with half a word settlelitigations!"
  tsze-lu never slept over a promise.
  the master said, "in hearing litigations, i am like any other body. what isnecessary, however, is to cause the people to have no litigations."
  tsze-chang asked about government. the master said, "the art of governing isto keep its affairs before the mind without weariness, and to practice them withundeviating consistency."
  the master said, "by extensively studying all learning, and keeping himselfunder the restraint of the rules of propriety, one may thus likewise not errfrom what is right."
  the master said, "the superior man seeks to perfect the admirable qualitiesof men, and does not seek to perfect their bad qualities. the mean man does theopposite of this."
  chi k'ang asked confucius about government. confucius replied, "to governmeans to rectify. if you lead on the people with correctness, who will dare notto be correct?"
  chi k'ang, distressed about the number of thieves in the state, inquired ofconfucius how to do away with them. confucius said, "if you, sir, were notcovetous, although you should reward them to do it, they would not steal."
  chi k'ang asked confucius about government, saying, "what do you say tokilling the unprincipled for the good of the principled?" confucius replied,"sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all? letyour evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. therelation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and thegrass. the grass must bend, when the wind blows across it."
  tsze-chang asked, "what must the officer be, who may be said to bedistinguished?"
  the master said, "what is it you call being distinguished?"
  tsze-chang replied, "it is to be heard of through the state, to be heard ofthroughout his clan."
  the master said, "that is notoriety, not distinction.
  "now the man of distinction is solid and straightforward, and lovesrighteousness. he examines people's words, and looks at their countenances. heis anxious to humble himself to others. such a man will be distinguished in thecountry; he will be distinguished in his clan.
  "as to the man of notoriety, he assumes the appearance of virtue, but hisactions are opposed to it, and he rests in this character without any doubtsabout himself. such a man will be heard of in the country; he will be heard ofin the clan."
  fan ch'ih rambling with the master under the trees about the rain altars,said, "i venture to ask how to exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and todiscover delusions."
  the master said, "truly a good question!
  "if doing what is to be done be made the first business, and success asecondary consideration:-is not this the way to exalt virtue? to assail one'sown wickedness and not assail that of others;-is not this the way to correctcherished evil? for a morning's anger to disregard one's own life, and involvethat of his parents;-is not this a case of delusion?"
  fan ch'ih asked about benevolence. the master said, "it is to love all men."he asked about knowledge. the master said, "it is to know all men."
  fan ch'ih did not immediately understand these answers.
  the master said, "employ the upright and put aside all the crooked; in thisway the crooked can be made to be upright."
  fan ch'ih retired, and, seeing tsze-hsia, he said to him, "a little whileago, i had an interview with our master, and asked him about knowledge. he said,'employ the upright, and put aside all the crooked;-in this way, the crookedwill be made to be upright.' what did he mean?"
  tsze-hsia said, "truly rich is his saying!
  "shun, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all thepeople, and employed kai-yao-on which all who were devoid of virtue disappeared.t'ang, being in possession of the kingdom, selected from among all the people,and employed i yin-and an who were devoid of virtue disappeared."
  tsze-kung asked about friendship. the master said, "faithfully admonish yourfriend, and skillfully lead him on. if you find him impracticable, stop. do notdisgrace yourself."
  the philosopher tsang said, "the superior man on grounds of culture meetswith his friends, and by friendship helps his virtue."


  13
  tsze-lu asked about government. the master said, "go before the people withyour example, and be laborious in their affairs."
  he requested further instruction, and was answered, "be not weary in thesethings."
  chung-kung, being chief minister to the head of the chi family, asked aboutgovernment. the master said, "employ first the services of your various officers,pardon small faults, and raise to office men of virtue and talents."
  chung-kung said, "how shall i know the men of virtue and talent, so that imay raise them to office?" he was answered, "raise to office those whom you know.as to those whom you do not know, will others neglect them?"
  tsze-lu said, "the ruler of wei has been waiting for you, in order with youto administer the government. what will you consider the first thing to bedone?"
  the master replied, "what is necessary is to rectify names."
  "so! indeed!" said tsze-lu. "you are wide of the mark! why must there besuch rectification?"
  the master said, "how uncultivated you are, yu! a superior man, in regard towhat he does not know, shows a cautious reserve.
  "if names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth ofthings. if language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairscannot be carried on to success.
  "when affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music do notflourish. when proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not beproperly awarded. when punishments are not properly awarded, the people do notknow how to move hand or foot.
  "therefore a superior man considers it necessary that the names he uses maybe spoken appropriately, and also that what he speaks may be carried outappropriately. what the superior man requires is just that in his words theremay be nothing incorrect."
  fan ch'ih requested to be taught husbandry. the master said, "i am not sogood for that as an old husbandman." he requested also to be taught gardening,and was answered, "i am not so good for that as an old gardener."
  fan ch'ih having gone out, the master said, "a small man, indeed, is fan hsu!if a superior man love propriety, the people will not dare not to be reverent.if he love righteousness, the people will not dare not to submit to his example.if he love good faith, the people will not dare not to be sincere. now, whenthese things obtain, the people from all quarters will come to him, bearingtheir children on their backs; what need has he of a knowledge of husbandry?"
  the master said, "though a man may be able to recite the three hundred odes,yet if, when intrusted with a governmental charge, he knows not how to act, orif, when sent to any quarter on a mission, he cannot give his replies unassisted,notwithstanding the extent of his learning, of what practical use is it?"
  the master said, "when a prince's personal conduct is correct, hisgovernment is effective without the issuing of orders. if his personal conductis not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed."
  the master said, "the governments of lu and wei are brothers."
  the master said of ching, a scion of the ducal family of wei, that he knewthe economy of a family well. when he began to have means, he said, "ha! here isa collection-!" when they were a little increased, he said, "ha! this iscomplete!" when he had become rich, he said, "ha! this is admirable!"
  when the master went to weil zan yu acted as driver of his carriage.
  the master observed, "how numerous are the people!"
  yu said, "since they are thus numerous, what more shall be done for them?""enrich them, was the reply.
  "and when they have been enriched, what more shall be done?" the master said,"teach them."
  the master said, "if there were any of the princes who would employ me, inthe course of twelve months, i should have done something considerable. in threeyears, the government would be perfected."
  the master said, "'if good men were to govern a country in succession for ahundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and dispensewith capital punishments.' true indeed is this saying!"
  the master said, "if a truly royal ruler were to arise, it would stirrequire a generation, and then virtue would prevail."
  the master said, "if a minister make his own conduct correct, whatdifficulty will he have in assisting in government? if he cannot rectify himself,what has he to do with rectifying others?"
  the disciple zan returning from the court, the master said to him, "how areyou so late?" he replied, "we had government business." the master said, "itmust have been family affairs. if there had been government business, though iam not now in office, i should have been consulted about it."
  the duke ting asked whether there was a single sentence which could make acountry prosperous. confucius replied, "such an effect cannot be expected fromone sentence.
  "there is a saying, however, which people have -'to be a prince is difficult;to be a minister is not easy.'
  "if a ruler knows this,-the difficulty of being a prince,-may there not beexpected from this one sentence the prosperity of his country?"
  the duke then said, "is there a single sentence which can ruin a country?"confucius replied, "such an effect as that cannot be expected from one sentence.there is, however, the saying which people have-'i have no pleasure in being aprince, but only in that no one can offer any opposition to what i say!'
  "if a ruler's words be good, is it not also good that no one oppose them?but if they are not good, and no one opposes them, may there not be expectedfrom this one sentence the ruin of his country?"
  the duke of sheh asked about government.
  the master said, "good government obtains when those who are near are madehappy, and those who are far off are attracted."
  tsze-hsia! being governor of chu-fu, asked about government. the master said,"do not be desirous to have things done quickly; do not look at small advantages.desire to have things done quickly prevents their being done thoroughly. lookingat small advantages prevents great affairs from being accomplished."
  the duke of sheh informed confucius, saying, "among us here there are thosewho may be styled upright in their conduct. if their father have stolen a sheep,they will bear witness to the fact."
  confucius said, "among us, in our part of the country, those who are uprightare different from this. the father conceals the misconduct of the son, and theson conceals the misconduct of the father. uprightness is to be found in this."
  fan ch'ih asked about perfect virtue. the master said, "it is, in retirement,to be sedately grave; in the management of business, to be reverently attentive;in intercourse with others, to be strictly sincere. though a man go among rude,uncultivated tribes, these qualities may not be neglected."
  tsze-kung asked, saying, "what qualities must a man possess to entitle himto be called an officer? the master said, "he who in his conduct of himselfmaintains a sense of shame, and when sent to any quarter will not disgrace hisprince's commission, deserves to be called an officer."
  tsze-kung pursued, "i venture to ask who may be placed in the next lowerrank?" and he was told, "he whom the circle of his relatives pronounce to befilial, whom his fellow villagers and neighbors pronounce to be fraternal."
  again the disciple asked, "i venture to ask about the class still next inorder." the master said, "they are determined to be sincere in what they say,and to carry out what they do. they are obstinate little men. yet perhaps theymay make the next class."
  tsze-kung finally inquired, "of what sort are those of the present day, whoengage in government?" the master said "pooh! they are so many pecks and hampers,not worth being taken into account."
  the master said, "since i cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to whom imight communicate my instructions, i must find the ardent and the cautiously-decided. the ardent will advance and lay hold of truth; the cautiously-decidedwill keep themselves from what is wrong."
  the master said, "the people of the south have a saying -'a man withoutconstancy cannot be either a wizard or a doctor.' good!
  "inconstant in his virtue, he will be visited with disgrace."
  the master said, "this arises simply from not attending to theprognostication."
  the master said, "the superior man is affable, but not adulatory; the meanman is adulatory, but not affable."
  tsze-kung asked, saying, "what do you say of a man who is loved by all thepeople of his neighborhood?" the master replied, "we may not for that accord ourapproval of him." "and what do you say of him who is hated by all the people ofhis neighborhood?" the master said, "we may not for that conclude that he is bad.it is better than either of these cases that the good in the neighborhood lovehim, and the bad hate him."
  the master said, "the superior man is easy to serve and difficult to please.if you try to please him in any way which is not accordant with right, he willnot be pleased. but in his employment of men, he uses them according to theircapacity. the mean man is difficult to serve, and easy to please. if you try toplease him, though it be in a way which is not accordant with right, he may bepleased. but in his employment of men, he wishes them to be equal toeverything."
  the master said, "the superior man has a dignified ease without pride. themean man has pride without a dignified ease."
  the master said, "the firm, the enduring, the simple, and the modest arenear to virtue."
  tsze-lu asked, saying, "what qualities must a man possess to entitle him tobe called a scholar?" the master said, "he must be thus,-earnest, urgent, andbland:-among his friends, earnest and urgent; among his brethren, bland."
  the master said, "let a good man teach the people seven years, and they maythen likewise be employed in war."
  the master said, "to lead an uninstructed people to war, is to throw themaway."


  14
  hsien asked what was shameful. the master said, "when good governmentprevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and, when bad governmentprevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of salary;-this is shameful."
  "when the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness arerepressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue."
  the master said, "this may be regarded as the achievement of what isdifficult. but i do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."
  the master said, "the scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fitto be deemed a scholar."
  the master said, "when good government prevails in a state, language may belofty and bold, and actions the same. when bad government prevails, the actionsmay be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve."
  the master said, "the virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but thosewhose speech is good may not always be virtuous. men of principle are sure to bebold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle."
  nan-kung kwo, submitting an inquiry to confucius, said, "i was skillful atarchery, and ao could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them dieda natural death. yu and chi personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, andthey became possessors of the kingdom." the master made no reply; but when nan-kung kwo went out, he said, "a superior man indeed is this! an esteemer ofvirtue indeed is this!"
  the master said, "superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been,alas! but there never has been a mean man, and, at the same time, virtuous."
  the master said, "can there be love which does not lead to strictness withits object? can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of itsobject?"
  the master said, "in preparing the governmental notifications, p'i shanfirst made the rough draft; shi-shu examined and discussed its contents; tsze-yu,the manager of foreign intercourse, then polished the style; and, finally, tsze-ch'an of tung-li gave it the proper elegance and finish."
  some one asked about tsze-ch'an. the master said, "he was a kind man."
  he asked about tsze-hsi. the master said, "that man! that man!"
  he asked about kwan chung. "for him," said the master, "the city of pien,with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the po family, who didnot utter a murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only coarserice to eat."
  the master said, "to be poor without murmuring is difficult. to be richwithout being proud is easy."
  the master said, "mang kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief officer in thefamilies of chao and wei, but he is not fit to be great officer to either of thestates tang or hsieh."
  tsze-lu asked what constituted a complete man. the master said, "suppose aman with the knowledge of tsang wu-chung, the freedom from covetousness of kung-ch'o, the bravery of chwang of pien, and the varied talents of zan ch'iu; add tothese the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music;-such a one mightbe reckoned a complete man."
  he then added, "but what is the necessity for a complete man of the presentday to have all these things? the man, who in the view of gain, thinks ofrighteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life; andwho does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends:-such a man maybe reckoned a complete man."
  the master asked kung-ming chia about kung-shu wan, saying, "is it true thatyour master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?"
  kung-ming chia replied, "this has arisen from the reporters going beyond thetruth.-my master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not gettired of his speaking. he laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so mendo not get tired of his laughing. he takes when it is consistent withrighteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking." the mastersaid, "so! but is it so with him?"
  the master said, "tsang wu-chung, keeping possession of fang, asked of theduke of lu to appoint a successor to him in his family. although it may be saidthat he was not using force with his sovereign, i believe he was."
  the master said, "the duke wan of tsin was crafty and not upright. the dukehwan of ch'i was upright and not crafty."
  tsze-lu said, "the duke hwan caused his brother chiu to be killed, when shaohu died, with his master, but kwan chung did not die. may not i say that he waswanting in virtue?"
  the master said, "the duke hwan assembled all the princes together, and thatnot with weapons of war and chariots:-it was all through the influence of kwanchung. whose beneficence was like his? whose beneficence was like his?"
  tsze-kung said, "kwan chung, i apprehend was wanting in virtue. when theduke hwan caused his brother chiu to be killed, kwan chung was not able to diewith him. moreover, he became prime minister to hwan."
  the master said, "kwan chung acted as prime minister to the duke hwan madehim leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom. downto the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. but for kwanchung, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coatsbuttoning on the left side.
  "will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women,who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing anything aboutthem?"
  the great officer, hsien, who had been family minister to kung-shu wan,ascended to the prince's court in company with wan.
  the master, having heard of it, said, "he deserved to be considered wan (theaccomplished)."
  the master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke ling ofweil when ch'i k'ang said, "since he is of such a character, how is it he doesnot lose his state?"
  confucius said, "the chung-shu yu has the superintendence of his guests andof strangers; the litanist, t'o, has the management of his ancestral temple; andwang-sun chia has the direction of the army and forces:-with such officers asthese, how should he lose his state?"
  the master said, "he who speaks without modesty will find it difficult tomake his words good."
  chan ch'ang murdered the duke chien of ch'i.
  confucius bathed, went to court and informed the duke ai, saying, "chan hanghas slain his sovereign. i beg that you will undertake to punish him."
  the duke said, "inform the chiefs of the three families of it."
  confucius retired, and said, "following in the rear of the great officers, idid not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, "inform thechiefs of the three families of it."
  he went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. confuciusthen said, "following in the rear of the great officers, i did not dare not torepresent such a matter."
  tsze-lu asked how a ruler should be served. the master said, "do not imposeon him, and, moreover, withstand him to his face."
  the master said, "the progress of the superior man is upwards; the progressof the mean man is downwards."
  the master said, "in ancient times, men learned with a view to their ownimprovement. nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of others."
  chu po-yu sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to confucius.
  confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "what," said he! "is your masterengaged in?" the messenger replied, "my master is anxious to make his faults few,but he has not yet succeeded." he then went out, and the master said, "amessenger indeed! a messenger indeed!"
  the master said, "he who is not in any particular office has nothing to dowith plans for the administration of its duties."
  the philosopher tsang said, "the superior man, in his thoughts, does not goout of his place."
  the master said, "the superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds inhis actions."
  the master said, "the way of the superior man is threefold, but i am notequal to it. virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free fromperplexities; bold, he is free from fear.
  tsze-kung said, "master, that is what you yourself say."
  tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. the master said, "tszemust have reached a high pitch of excellence! now, i have not leisure for this."
  the master said, "i will not be concerned at men's not knowing me; i will beconcerned at my own want of ability."
  the master said, "he who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, northink beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these thingsreadily when they occur;-is he not a man of superior worth?"
  wei-shang mau said to confucius, "ch'iu, how is it that you keep roostingabout? is it not that you are an insinuating talker?
  confucius said, "i do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but i hateobstinacy."
  the master said, "a horse is called a ch'i, not because of its strength, butbecause of its other good qualities."
  some one said, "what do you say concerning the principle that injury shouldbe recompensed with kindness?"
  the master said, "with what then will you recompense kindness?"
  "recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."
  the master said, "alas! there is no one that knows me."
  tsze-kung said, "what do you mean by thus saying-that no one knows you?" themaster replied, "i do not murmur against heaven. i do not grumble against men.my studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. but there is heaven;-thatknows me!"
  the kung-po liao, having slandered tsze-lu to chi-sun, tsze-fu ching-poinformed confucius of it, saying, "our master is certainly being led astray bythe kung-po liao, but i have still power enough left to cut liao off, and exposehis corpse in the market and in the court."
  the master said, "if my principles are to advance, it is so ordered. if theyare to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. what can the kung-po liao do wheresuch ordering is concerned?"
  the master said, "some men of worth retire from the world. some retire fromparticular states. some retire because of disrespectful looks. some retirebecause of contradictory language."
  the master said, "those who have done this are seven men."
  tsze-lu happening to pass the night in shih-man, the gatekeeper said to him,"whom do you come from?" tsze-lu said, "from mr. k'ung." "it is he,-is it not?"-said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature of the times and yet will bedoing in them."
  the master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in weil when a mancarrying a straw basket passed door of the house where confucius was, and said,"his heart is full who so beats the musical stone."
  a little while after, he added, "how contemptible is the one-ideaedobstinacy those sounds display! when one is taken no notice of, he has simply atonce to give over his wish for public employment. 'deep water must be crossedwith the clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up.'"
  the master said, "how determined is he in his purpose! but this is notdifficult!"
  tsze-chang said, "what is meant when the shu says that kao-tsung, whileobserving the usual imperial mourning, was for three years without speaking?"
  the master said, "why must kao-tsung be referred to as an example of this?the ancients all did so. when the sovereign died, the officers all attended totheir several duties, taking instructions from the prime minister for threeyears."
  the master said, "when rulers love to observe the rules of propriety, thepeople respond readily to the calls on them for service."
  tsze-lu asked what constituted the superior man. the master said, "thecultivation of himself in reverential carefulness." "and is this all?" saidtsze-lu. "he cultivates himself so as to give rest to others," was the reply."and is this all?" again asked tsze-lu. the master said, "he cultivates himselfso as to give rest to all the people. he cultivates himself so as to give restto all the people:-even yao and shun were still solicitous about this."
  yuan zang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the approach of themaster, who said to him, "in youth not humble as befits a junior; in manhood,doing nothing worthy of being handed down; and living on to old age:-this is tobe a pest." with this he hit him on the shank with his staff.
  a youth of the village of ch'ueh was employed by confucius to carry themessages between him and his visitors. some one asked about him, saying, "isuppose he has made great progress."
  the master said, "i observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man; i observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders. he isnot one who is seeking to make progress in learning. he wishes quickly to becomea man."


  15
  the duke ling of wei asked confucius about tactics. confucius replied, "ihave heard all about sacrificial vessels, but i have not learned militarymatters." on this, he took his departure the next day.
  when he was in chan, their provisions were exhausted, and his followersbecame so in that they were unable to rise.
  tsze-lu, with evident dissatisfaction, said, "has the superior man likewiseto endure in this way?" the master said, "the superior man may indeed have toendure want, but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridledlicense."
  the master said, "ts'ze, you think, i suppose, that i am one who learns manythings and keeps them in memory?"
  tsze-kung replied, "yes,-but perhaps it is not so?"
  "no," was the answer; "i seek a unity all pervading."
  the master said, "yu i those who know virtue are few."
  the master said, "may not shun be instanced as having governed efficientlywithout exertion? what did he do? he did nothing but gravely and reverentlyoccupy his royal seat."
  tsze-chang asked how a man should conduct himself, so as to be everywhereappreciated.
  the master said, "let his words be sincere and truthful and his actionshonorable and careful;-such conduct may be practiced among the rude tribes ofthe south or the north. if his words be not sincere and truthful and his actionsnot honorable and carefull will he, with such conduct, be appreciated, even inhis neighborhood?
  "when he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting him.when he is in a carriage, let him see them attached to the yoke. then may hesubsequently carry them into practice."
  tsze-chang wrote these counsels on the end of his sash.
  the master said, "truly straightforward was the historiographer yu. whengood government prevailed in his state, he was like an arrow. when badgovernment prevailed, he was like an arrow. a superior man indeed is chu po-yu!when good government prevails in his state, he is to be found in office. whenbad government prevails, he can roll his principles up, and keep them in hisbreast."
  the master said, "when a man may be spoken with, not to speak to him is toerr in reference to the man. when a man may not be spoken with, to speak to himis to err in reference to our words. the wise err neither in regard to their mannor to their words."
  the master said, "the determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seekto live at the expense of injuring their virtue. they will even sacrifice theirlives to preserve their virtue complete."
  tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. the master said, "the mechanic,who wishes to do his work well, must first sharpen his tools. when you areliving in any state, take service with the most worthy among its great officers,and make friends of the most virtuous among its scholars."
  yen yuan asked how the government of a country should be administered.
  the master said, "follow the seasons of hsia.
  "ride in the state carriage of yin.
  "wear the ceremonial cap of chau.
  "let the music be the shao with its pantomimes. banish the songs of chang,and keep far from specious talkers. the songs of chang are licentious; specioustalkers are dangerous."
  the master said, "if a man take no thought about what is distant, he willfind sorrow near at hand."
  the master said, "it is all over! i have not seen one who loves virtue as heloves beauty."
  the master said, "was not tsang wan like one who had stolen his situation?he knew the virtue and the talents of hui of liu-hsia, and yet did not procurethat he should stand with him in court."
  the master said, "he who requires much from himself and little from others,will keep himself from being the object of resentment."
  the master said, "when a man is not in the habit of saying-'what shall ithink of this? what shall i think of this?' i can indeed do nothing with him!"
  the master said, "when a number of people are together, for a whole day,without their conversation turning on righteousness, and when they are fond ofcarrying out the suggestions of a small shrewdness;-theirs is indeed a hardcase."
  the master said, "the superior man in everything considers righteousness tobe essential. he performs it according to the rules of propriety. he brings itforth in humility. he completes it with sincerity. this is indeed a superiorman."
  the master said, "the superior man is distressed by his want of ability. heis not distressed by men's not knowing him."
  the master said, "the superior man dislikes the thought of his name notbeing mentioned after his death."
  the master said, "what the superior man seeks, is in himself. what the meanman seeks, is in others."
  the master said, "the superior man is dignified, but does not wrangle. he issociable, but not a partisan."
  the master said, "the superior man does not promote a man simply on accountof his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man."
  tsze-kung asked, saying, "is there one word which may serve as a rule ofpractice for all one's life?" the master said, "is not reciprocity such a word?what you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others."
  the master said, "in my dealings with men, whose evil do i blame, whosegoodness do i praise, beyond what is proper? if i do sometimes exceed in praise,there must be ground for it in my examination of the individual.
  "this people supplied the ground why the three dynasties pursued the path ofstraightforwardness."
  the master said, "even in my early days, a historiographer would leave ablank in his text, and he who had a horse would lend him to another to ride. now,alas! there are no such things."
  the master said, "specious words confound virtue. want of forbearance insmall matters confounds great plans."
  the master said, "when the multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examineinto the case. when the multitude like a man, it is necessary to examine intothe case."
  the master said, "a man can enlarge the principles which he follows; thoseprinciples do not enlarge the man."
  the master said, "to have faults and not to reform them,-this, indeed,should be pronounced having faults."
  the master said, "i have been the whole day without eating, and the wholenight without sleeping:-occupied with thinking. it was of no use. better plan isto learn."
  the master said, "the object of the superior man is truth. food is not hisobject. there is plowing;-even in that there is sometimes want. so withlearning;-emolument may be found in it. the superior man is anxious lest heshould not get truth; he is not anxious lest poverty should come upon him."
  the master said, "when a man's knowledge is sufficient to attain, and hisvirtue is not sufficient to enable him to hold, whatever he may have gained, hewill lose again.
  "when his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough tohold fast, if he cannot govern with dignity, the people will not respect him.
  "when his knowledge is sufficient to attain, and he has virtue enough tohold fast; when he governs also with dignity, yet if he try to move the peoplecontrary to the rules of propriety:-full excellence is not reached."
  the master said, "the superior man cannot be known in little matters; but hemay be intrusted with great concerns. the small man may not be intrusted withgreat concerns, but he may be known in little matters."
  the master said, "virtue is more to man than either water or fire. i haveseen men die from treading on water and fire, but i have never seen a man diefrom treading the course of virtue."
  the master said, "let every man consider virtue as what devolves on himself.he may not yield the performance of it even to his teacher."
  the master said, "the superior man is correctly firm, and not firm merely."
  the master said, "a minister, in serving his prince, reverently dischargeshis duties, and makes his emolument a secondary consideration."
  the master said, "in teaching there should be no distinction of classes."
  the master said, "those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for oneanother."
  the master said, "in language it is simply required that it convey themeaning."
  the music master, mien, having called upon him, when they came to the steps,the master said, "here are the steps." when they came to the mat for the guestto sit upon, he said, "here is the mat." when all were seated, the masterinformed him, saying, "so and so is here; so and so is here."
  the music master, mien, having gone out, tsze-chang asked, saying. "is itthe rule to tell those things to the music master?"
  the master said, "yes. this is certainly the rule for those who lead theblind."


  16
  the head of the chi family was going to attack chwan-yu.
  zan yu and chi-lu had an interview with confucius, and said, "our chief,chil is going to commence operations against chwan-yu."
  confucius said, "ch'iu, is it not you who are in fault here?
  "now, in regard to chwan-yu, long ago, a former king appointed its ruler topreside over the sacrifices to the eastern mang; moreover, it is in the midst ofthe territory of our state; and its ruler is a minister in direct connectionwith the sovereign: what has your chief to do with attacking it?"
  zan yu said, "our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministerswishes it."
  confucius said, "ch'iu, there are the words of chau zan, -'when he can putforth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he findshimself unable to do so, he retires from it. how can he be used as a guide to ablind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up whenfallen?'
  "and further, you speak wrongly. when a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from hiscage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its repository:-whose isthe fault?"
  zan yu said, "but at present, chwan-yu is strong and near to pi; if ourchief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants."
  confucius said. "ch'iu, the superior man hates those declining to say-'iwant such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for their conduct.
  "i have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of families are not troubledlest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keeptheir several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but aretroubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in theirseveral places. for when the people keep their several places, there will be nopoverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and whenthere is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.
  "so it is.-therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all theinfluences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them tobe so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented andtranquil.
  "now, here are you, yu and ch'iu, assisting your chief. remoter people arenot submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. in his ownterritory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, withyour help, he cannot preserve it.
  "and yet he is planning these hostile movements within the state.-i amafraid that the sorrow of the chi-sun family will not be on account of chwan-yu,but will be found within the screen of their own court."
  confucius said, "when good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies,music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of heaven. whenbad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive militaryexpeditions proceed from the princes. when these things proceed from the princes,as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in tengenerations. when they proceed from the great officers of the princes, as a rule,the case will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations.when the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp theorders of the state, as a rule the cases will be few in which they do not losetheir power in three generations.
  "when right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in thehands of the great officers.
  "when right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussionsamong the common people."
  confucius said, "the revenue of the state has left the ducal house now forfive generations. the government has been in the hands of the great officers forfour generations. on this account, the descendants of the three hwan are muchreduced."
  confucius said, "there are three friendships which are advantageous, andthree which are injurious. friendship with the uplight; friendship with thesincere; and friendship with the man of much observation:-these are advantageous.friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft;and friendship with the glib-tongued:-these are injurious."
  confucius said, "there are three things men find enjoyment in which areadvantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. tofind enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to findenjoyment in speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in havingmany worthy friends:-these are advantageous. to find enjoyment in extravagantpleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment inthe pleasures of feasting:-these are injurious."
  confucius said, "there are three errors to which they who stand in thepresence of a man of virtue and station are liable. they may speak when it doesnot come to them to speak;-this is called rashness. they may not speak when itcomes to them to speak;-this is called concealment. they may speak withoutlooking at the countenance of their superior;-this is called blindness."
  confucius said, "there are three things which the superior man guardsagainst. in youth, when the physical powers are not yet settled, he guardsagainst lust. when he is strong and the physical powers are full of vigor, heguards against quarrelsomeness. when he is old, and the animal powers aredecayed, he guards against covetousness."
  confucius said, "there are three things of which the superior man stands inawe. he stands in awe of the ordinances of heaven. he stands in awe of great men.he stands in awe of the words of sages.
  "the mean man does not know the ordinances of heaven, and consequently doesnot stand in awe of them. he is disrespectful to great men. he makes sport ofthe words of sages."
  confucius said, "those who are born with the possession of knowledge are thehighest class of men. those who learn, and so readily get possession ofknowledge, are the next. those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass thelearning, are another class next to these. as to those who are dull and stupidand yet do not learn;-they are the lowest of the people."
  confucius said, "the superior man has nine things which are subjects withhim of thoughtful consideration. in regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxiousto see clearly. in regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to heardistinctly. in regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign.in regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. in regardto his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. in regard to his doingof business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. in regard towhat he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. when he is angry, hethinks of the difficulties his anger may involve him in. when he sees gain to begot, he thinks of righteousness."
  confucius said, "contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could notreach it; contemplating evil! and shrinking from it, as they would fromthrusting the hand into boiling water:-i have seen such men, as i have heardsuch words.
  "living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing righteousness tocarry out their principles:-i have heard these words, but i have not seen suchmen."
  the duke ching of ch'i had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on theday of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue. po-i andshu-ch'i died of hunger at the foot of the shau-yang mountains, and the people,down to the present time, praise them.
  "is not that saying illustrated by this?"
  ch'an k'ang asked po-yu, saying, "have you heard any lessons from yourfather different from what we have all heard?"
  po-yu replied, "no. he was standing alone once, when i passed below the hallwith hasty steps, and said to me, 'have you learned the odes?' on my replying'not yet,' he added, if you do not learn the odes, you will not be fit toconverse with.' i retired and studied the odes.
  "another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when i passed by belowthe hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'have you learned the rules ofpropriety?' on my replying 'not yet,' he added, 'if you do not learn the rulesof propriety, your character cannot be established.' i then retired, and learnedthe rules of propriety.
  "i have heard only these two things from him."
  ch'ang k'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "i asked one thing, and ihave got three things. i have heard about the odes. i have heard about the rulesof propriety. i have also heard that the superior man maintains a distantreserve towards his son."
  the wife of the prince of a state is called by him fu zan. she calls herselfhsiao t'ung. the people of the state call her chun fu zan, and, to the people ofother states, they call her k'wa hsiao chun. the people of other states alsocall her chun fu zan.









  17
  yang ho wished to see confucius, but confucius would not go to see him. onthis, he sent a present of a pig to confucius, who, having chosen a time when howas not at home went to pay his respects for the gift. he met him, however, onthe way.
  ho said to confucius, "come, let me speak with you." he then asked, "can hebe called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom, and leaves his country toconfusion?" confucius replied, "no." "can he be called wise, who is anxious tobe engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity ofbeing so?" confucius again said, "no." "the days and months are passing away;the years do not wait for us." confucius said, "right; i will go into office."
  the master said, "by nature, men are nearly alike; by practice, they get tobe wide apart."
  the master said, "there are only the wise of the highest class, and thestupid of the lowest class, who cannot be changed."
  the master, having come to wu-ch'ang, heard there the sound of stringedinstruments and singing.
  well pleased and smiling, he said, "why use an ox knife to kill a fowl?"
  tsze-yu replied, "formerly, master, i heard you say,-'when the man of highstation is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of low station is wellinstructed, he is easily ruled.'"
  the master said, "my disciples, yen's words are right. what i said was onlyin sport."
  kung-shan fu-zao, when he was holding pi, and in an attitude of rebellion,invited the master to visit him, who was rather inclined to go.
  tsze-lu was displeased. and said, "indeed, you cannot go! why must you thinkof going to see kung-shan?"
  the master said, "can it be without some reason that he has invited me? ifany one employ me, may i not make an eastern chau?"
  tsze-chang asked confucius about perfect virtue. confucius said, "to be ableto practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue." hebegged to ask what they were, and was told, "gravity, generosity of soul,sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. if you are grave, you will not be treatedwith disrespect. if you are generous, you will win all. if you are sincere,people will repose trust in you. if you are earnest, you will accomplish much.if you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others.
  pi hsi inviting him to visit him, the master was inclined to go.
  tsze-lu said, "master, formerly i have heard you say, 'when a man in his ownperson is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will not associate with him.' pihsi is in rebellion, holding possession of chung-mau; if you go to him, whatshall be said?"
  the master said, "yes, i did use these words. but is it not said, that, if athing be really hard, it may be ground without being made thin? is it not said,that, if a thing be really white, it may be steeped in a dark fluid withoutbeing made black?
  "am i a bitter gourd? how can i be hung up out of the way of being eaten?"
  the master said, "yu, have you heard the six words to which are attached sixbecloudings?" yu replied, "i have not."
  "sit down, and i will tell them to you.
  "there is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning;-thebeclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. there is the love of knowingwithout the love of learning;-the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind.there is the love of being sincere without the love of learning;-the becloudinghere leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. there is the love ofstraightforwardness without the love of learning;-the beclouding here leads torudeness. there is the love of boldness without the love of learning;-thebeclouding here leads to insubordination. there is the love of firmness withoutthe love of learning;-the beclouding here leads to extravagant conduct."
  the master said, "my children, why do you not study the book of poetry?
  "the odes serve to stimulate the mind.
  "they may be used for purposes of self-contemplation.
  "they teach the art of sociability.
  "they show how to regulate feelings of resentment.
  "from them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, andthe remoter one of serving one's prince.
  "from them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, andplants."
  the master said to po-yu, "do you give yourself to the chau-nan and theshao-nan. the man who has not studied the chau-nan and the shao-nan is like onewho stands with his face right against a wall. is he not so?" the master said,"'it is according to the rules of propriety,' they say.-'it is according to therules of propriety,' they say. are gems and silk all that is meant by propriety?'it is music,' they say.-'it is music,' they say. are hers and drums all that ismeant by music?"
  the master said, "he who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, whileinwardly he is weak, is like one of the small, mean people;-yea, is he not likethe thief who breaks through, or climbs over, a wall?"
  the master said, "your good, careful people of the villages are the thievesof virtue."
  the master said, to tell, as we go along, what we have heard on the way, isto cast away our virtue."
  the master said, "there are those mean creatures! how impossible it is alongwith them to serve one's prince!
  "while they have not got their aims, their anxiety is how to get them. whenthey have got them, their anxiety is lest they should lose them.
  "when they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing towhich they will not proceed."
  the master said, "anciently, men had three failings, which now perhaps arenot to be found.
  "the high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of smallthings; the high-mindedness of the present day shows itself in wild license. thestern dignity of antiquity showed itself in grave reserve; the stern dignity ofthe present day shows itself in quarrelsome perverseness. the stupidity ofantiquity showed itself in straightforwardness; the stupidity of the present dayshows itself in sheer deceit."
  the master said, "fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldomassociated with virtue."
  the master said, "i hate the manner in which purple takes away the luster ofvermilion. i hate the way in which the songs of chang confound the music of theya. i hate those who with their sharp mouths overthrow kingdoms and families."
  the master said, "i would prefer not speaking."
  tsze-kung said, "if you, master, do not speak, what shall we, your disciples,have to record?"
  the master said, "does heaven speak? the four seasons pursue their courses,and all things are continually being produced, but does heaven say anything?"
  zu pei wished to see confucius, but confucius declined, on the ground ofbeing sick, to see him. when the bearer of this message went out at the door,the master took his lute and sang to it, in order that pei might hear him.
  tsai wo asked about the three years' mourning for parents, saying that oneyear was long enough.
  "if the superior man," said he, "abstains for three years from theobservances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost. if for threeyears he abstains from music, music will be ruined. within a year the old grainis exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and, in procuring fire byfriction, we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. after acomplete year, the mourning may stop."
  the master said, "if you were, after a year, to eat good rice, and wearembroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?" "i should," replied wo.
  the master said, "if you can feel at ease, do it. but a superior man, duringthe whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat, norderive pleasure from music which he may hear. he also does not feel at ease, ifhe is comfortably lodged. therefore he does not do what you propose. but now youfeel at ease and may do it."
  tsai wo then went out, and the master said, "this shows yu's want of virtue.it is not till a child is three years old that it is allowed to leave the armsof its parents. and the three years' mourning is universally observed throughoutthe empire. did yu enjoy the three years' love of his parents?"
  the master said, "hard is it to deal with who will stuff himself with foodthe whole day, without applying his mind to anything good! are there notgamesters and chess players? to be one of these would still be better than doingnothing at all."
  tsze-lu said, "does the superior man esteem valor?" the master said, "thesuperior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. a man in asuperior situation, having valor without righteousness, will be guilty ofinsubordination; one of the lower people having valor without righteousness,will commit robbery."
  tsze-kung said, "has the superior man his hatreds also?" the master said,"he has his hatreds. he hates those who proclaim the evil of others. he hatesthe man who, being in a low station, slanders his superiors. he hates those whohave valor merely, and are unobservant of propriety. he hates those who areforward and determined, and, at the same time, of contracted understanding."
  the master then inquired, "ts'ze, have you also your hatreds?" tsze-kungreplied, "i hate those who pry out matters, and ascribe the knowledge to theirwisdom. i hate those who are only not modest, and think that they are valorous.i hate those who make known secrets, and think that they are straightforward."
  the master said, "of all people, girls and servants are the most difficultto behave to. if you are familiar with them, they lose their humility. if youmaintain a reserve towards them, they are discontented."
  the master said, "when a man at forty is the object of dislike, he willalways continue what he is."


  18
  the viscount of wei withdrew from the court. the viscount of chi became aslave to chau. pi-kan remonstrated with him and died.
  confucius said, "the yin dynasty possessed these three men of virtue."
  hui of liu-hsia, being chief criminal judge, was thrice dismissed from hisoffice. some one said to him, "is it not yet time for you, sir, to leave this?"he replied, "serving men in an upright way, where shall i go to, and notexperience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? if i choose to serve men in acrooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country of my parents?"
  the duke ching of ch'i, with reference to the manner in which he shouldtreat confucius, said, "i cannot treat him as i would the chief of the chifamily. i will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the chief of thechil and that given to the chief of the mang family." he also said, "i am old; icannot use his doctrines." confucius took his departure.
  the people of ch'i sent to lu a present of female musicians, which chi hwanreceived, and for three days no court was held. confucius took his departure.
  the madman of ch'u, chieh-yu, passed by confucius, singing and saying, "ofang! o fang! how is your virtue degenerated! as to the past, reproof is useless;but the future may still be provided against. give up your vain pursuit. give upyour vain pursuit. peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government."
  confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but chieh-yu hastenedaway, so that he could not talk with him.
  ch'ang-tsu and chieh-ni were at work in the field together, when confuciuspassed by them, and sent tsze-lu to inquire for the ford.
  ch'ang-tsu said, "who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?"tsze-lu told him, "it is k'ung ch'iu.', "is it not k'ung of lu?" asked he."yes," was the reply, to which the other rejoined, "he knows the ford."
  tsze-lu then inquired of chieh-ni, who said to him, "who are you, sir?" heanswered, "i am chung yu." "are you not the disciple of k'ung ch'iu of lu?"asked the other. "i am," replied he, and then chieh-ni said to him, "disorder,like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire, and who is he that willchange its state for you? rather than follow one who merely withdraws from thisone and that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from theworld altogether?" with this he fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded withhis work, without stopping.
  tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the master observed with asigh, "it is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they were thesame with us. if i associate not with these people,-with mankind,-with whomshall i associate? if right principles prevailed through the empire, there wouldbe no use for me to change its state."
  tsze-lu, following the master, happened to fall behind, when he met an oldman, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. tsze-lu said tohim, "have you seen my master, sir?" the old man replied, "your four limbs areunaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of grain:-who isyour master?" with this, he planted his staff in the ground, and proceeded toweed.
  tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him.
  the old man kept tsze-lu to pass the night in his house, killed a fowl,prepared millet, and feasted him. he also introduced to him his two sons.
  next day, tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his adventure. the mastersaid, "he is a recluse," and sent tsze-lu back to see him again, but when he gotto the place, the old man was gone.
  tsze-lu then said to the family, "not to take office is not righteous. ifthe relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he setsaside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? wishingto maintain his personal purity, he allows that great relation to come toconfusion. a superior man takes office, and performs the righteous dutiesbelonging to it. as to the failure of right principles to make progress, he isaware of that."
  the men who have retired to privacy from the world have been po-i, shu-ch'i,yuchung, i-yi, chu-chang, hui of liu-hsia, and shao-lien.
  the master said, "refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to anytaint in their persons; such, i think, were po-i and shu-ch'i.
  "it may be said of hui of liu-hsia! and of shaolien, that they surrenderedtheir wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their wordscorresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men are anxious to see.this is all that is to be remarked in them.
  "it may be said of yu-chung and i-yi, that, while they hid themselves intheir seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but in their persons, theysucceeded in preserving their purity, and, in their retirement, they actedaccording to the exigency of the times.
  "i am different from all these. i have no course for which i ampredetermined, and no course against which i am predetermined."
  the grand music master, chih, went to ch'i.
  kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to ch'u. liao, the bandmaster at the third meal, went to ts'ai. chueh, the band master at the fourthmeal, went to ch'in.
  fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.
  wu, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the han.
  yang, the assistant music master, and hsiang, master of the musical stone,withdrew to an island in the sea.
  the duke of chau addressed his son, the duke of lu, saying, "the virtuousprince does not neglect his relations. he does not cause the great ministers torepine at his not employing them. without some great cause, he does not dismissfrom their offices the members of old families. he does not seek in one mantalents for every employment."
  to chau belonged the eight officers, po-ta, po-kwo, chung-tu, chung-hwu,shu-ya, shuhsia, chi-sui, and chi-kwa.


  19
  tsze-chang said, "the scholar, trained for public duty, seeing threateningdanger, is prepared to sacrifice his life. when the opportunity of gain ispresented to him, he thinks of righteousness. in sacrificing, his thoughts arereverential. in mourning, his thoughts are about the grief which he should feel.such a man commands our approbation indeed
  tsze-chang said, "when a man holds fast to virtue, but without seeking toenlarge it, and believes in right principles, but without firm sincerity, whataccount can be made of his existence or non-existence?"
  the disciples of tsze-hsia asked tsze-chang about the principles that shouldcharacterize mutual intercourse. tsze-chang asked, "what does tsze-hsia say onthe subject?" they replied, "tsze-hsia says: 'associate with those who canadvantage you. put away from you those who cannot do so.'" tsze-chang observed,"this is different from what i have learned. the superior man honors thetalented and virtuous, and bears with all. he praises the good, and pities theincompetent. am i possessed of great talents and virtue?-who is there among menwhom i will not bear with? am i devoid of talents and virtue?-men will put meaway from them. what have we to do with the putting away of others?"
  tsze-hsia said, "even in inferior studies and employments there is somethingworth being looked at; but if it be attempted to carry them out to what isremote, there is a danger of their proving inapplicable. therefore, the superiorman does not practice them."
  tsze-hsia said, "he, who from day to day recognizes what he has not yet, andfrom month to month does not forget what he has attained to, may be said indeedto love to learn."
  tsze-hsia said, "there are learning extensively, and having a firm andsincere aim; inquiring with earnestness, and reflecting with self-application:-virtue is in such a course."
  tsze-hsia said, "mechanics have their shops to dwell in, in order toaccomplish their works. the superior man learns, in order to reach to the utmostof his principles."
  tsze-hsia said, "the mean man is sure to gloss his faults."
  tsze-hsia said, "the superior man undergoes three changes. looked at from adistance, he appears stern; when approached, he is mild; when he is heard tospeak, his language is firm and decided."
  tsze-hsia said, "the superior man, having obtained their confidence, maythen impose labors on his people. if he have not gained their confidence, theywill think that he is oppressing them. having obtained the confidence of hisprince, one may then remonstrate with him. if he have not gained his confidence,the prince will think that he is vilifying him."
  tsze-hsia said, "when a person does not transgress the boundary line in thegreat virtues, he may pass and repass it in the small virtues."
  tsze-yu said, "the disciples and followers of tsze-hsia, in sprinkling andsweeping the ground, in answering and replying, in advancing and receding, aresufficiently accomplished. but these are only the branches of learning, and theyare left ignorant of what is essential.-how can they be acknowledged assufficiently taught?"
  tsze-hsia heard of the remark and said, "alas! yen yu is wrong. according tothe way of the superior man in teaching, what departments are there which heconsiders of prime importance, and delivers? what are there which he considersof secondary importance, and allows himself to be idle about? but as in the caseof plants, which are assorted according to their classes, so he deals with hisdisciples. how can the way of a superior man be such as to make fools of any ofthem? is it not the sage alone, who can unite in one the beginning and theconsummation of learning?"
  tsze-hsia said, "the officer, having discharged all his duties, shoulddevote his leisure to learning. the student, having completed his learning,should apply himself to be an officer."
  tsze-hsia said, "mourning, having been carried to the utmost degree of grief,should stop with that."
  tsze-hsia said, "my friend chang can do things which are hard to be done,but yet he is not perfectly virtuous."
  the philosopher tsang said, "how imposing is the manner of chang! it isdifficult along with him to practice virtue."
  the philosopher tsang said, "i heard this from our master: 'men may not haveshown what is in them to the full extent, and yet they will be found to do so,on the occasion of mourning for their parents."
  the philosopher tsang said, "i have heard this from our master:-'the filialpiety of mang chwang, in other matters, was what other men are competent to, but,as seen in his not changing the ministers of his father, nor his father's modeof government, it is difficult to be attained to.'"
  the chief of the mang family having appointed yang fu to be chief criminaljudge, the latter consulted the philosopher tsang. tsang said, "the rulers havefailed in their duties, and the people consequently have been disorganized for along time. when you have found out the truth of any accusation, be grieved forand pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability."
  tsze-kung said, "chau's wickedness was not so great as that name implies.therefore, the superior man hates to dwell in a low-lying situation, where allthe evil of the world will flow in upon him."
  tsze-kung said, "the faults of the superior man are like the eclipses of thesun and moon. he has his faults, and all men see them; he changes again, and allmen look up to him."
  kung-sun ch'ao of wei asked tszekung, saying. "from whom did chung-ni gethis learning?"
  tsze-kung replied, "the doctrines of wan and wu have not yet fallen to theground. they are to be found among men. men of talents and virtue remember thegreater principles of them, and others, not possessing such talents and virtue,remember the smaller. thus, all possess the doctrines of wan and wu. where couldour master go that he should not have an opportunity of learning them? and yetwhat necessity was there for his having a regular master?"
  shu-sun wu-shu observed to the great officers in the court, saying, "tsze-kung is superior to chung-ni."
  tsze-fu ching-po reported the observation to tsze-kung, who said, "let meuse the comparison of a house and its encompassing wall. my wall only reaches tothe shoulders. one may peep over it, and see whatever is valuable in theapartments.
  "the wall of my master is several fathoms high. if one do not find the doorand enter by it, he cannot see the ancestral temple with its beauties, nor allthe officers in their rich array.
  "but i may assume that they are few who find the door. was not theobservation of the chief only what might have been expected?"
  shu-sun wu-shu having spoken revilingly of chung-ni, tsze-kung said, "it isof no use doing so. chung-ni cannot be reviled. the talents and virtue of othermen are hillocks and mounds which may be stepped over. chung-ni is the sun ormoon, which it is not possible to step over. although a man may wish to cuthimself off from the sage, what harm can he do to the sun or moon? he only showsthat he does not know his own capacity.
  ch'an tsze-ch' in, addressing tsze-kung, said, "you are too modest. how canchung-ni be said to be superior to you?"
  tsze-kung said to him, "for one word a man is often deemed to be wise, andfor one word he is often deemed to be foolish. we ought to be careful indeed inwhat we say.
  "our master cannot be attained to, just in the same way as the heavenscannot be gone up by the steps of a stair.
  "were our master in the position of the ruler of a state or the chief of afamily, we should find verified the description which has been given of a sage'srule:-he would plant the people, and forthwith they would be established; hewould lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him; he would make themhappy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions; he wouldstimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. while he lived, he wouldbe glorious. when he died, he would be bitterly lamented. how is it possible forhim to be attained to?"


  20
  yao said, "oh! you, shun, the heaven-determined order of succession nowrests in your person. sincerely hold fast the due mean. if there shall bedistress and want within the four seas, the heavenly revenue will come to aperpetual end."
  shun also used the same language in giving charge to yu.
  t'ang said, "i the child li, presume to use a dark-colored victim, andpresume to announce to thee, o most great and sovereign god, that the sinner idare not pardon, and thy ministers, o god, i do not keep in obscurity. theexamination of them is by thy mind, o god. if, in my person, i commit offenses,they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. if youin the myriad regions commit offenses, these offenses must rest on my person."
  chau conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched.
  "although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my virtuous men.the people are throwing blame upon me, the one man."
  he carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body of thelaws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the kingdomtook its course.
  he revived states that had been extinguished, restored families whose lineof succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired intoobscurity, so that throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turnedtowards him.
  what he attached chief importance to were the food of the people, the dutiesof mourning, and sacrifices.
  by his generosity, he won all. by his sincerity, he made the people reposetrust in him. by his earnest activity, his achievements were great. by hisjustice, all were delighted.
  tsze-chang asked confucius, saying, "in what way should a person inauthority act in order that he may conduct government properly?" the masterreplied, "let him honor the five excellent, and banish away the four bad,things;-then may he conduct government properly." tsze-chang said, "what aremeant by the five excellent things?" the master said, "when the person inauthority is beneficent without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on thepeople without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without beingcovetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he ismajestic without being fierce."
  tsze-chang said, "what is meant by being beneficent without greatexpenditure?" the master replied, "when the person in authority makes morebeneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit;-isnot this being beneficent without great expenditure? when he chooses the laborswhich are proper, and makes them labor on them, who will repine? when hisdesires are set on benevolent government, and he secures it, who will accuse himof covetousness? whether he has to do with many people or few, or with thingsgreat or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect;-is not this tomaintain a dignified ease without any pride? he adjusts his clothes and cap, andthrows a dignity into his looks, so that, thus dignified, he is looked at withawe;-is not this to be majestic without being fierce?"
  tsze-chang then asked, "what are meant by the four bad things?" the mastersaid, "to put the people to death without having instructed them;-this is calledcruelty. to require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without havinggiven them warning;-this is called oppression. to issue orders as if withouturgency, at first, and, when the time comes, to insist on them with severity;-this is called injury. and, generally, in the giving pay or rewards to men, todo it in a stingy way;-this is called acting the part of a mere official."
  the master said, "without recognizing the ordinances of heaven, it isimpossible to be a superior man.
  "without an acquaintance with the rules of propriety, it is impossible forthe character to be established.
  "without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men."

指朕村